Анотації до статей 2016

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УДК 343.1

Кравчук Т. О. Залучення спеціаліста і допит судового експерта з метою оцінки й роз’яснення експертного висновку.

Розглянуто питання допиту експерта як слідчої (судової) дії, метою якої є отримання роз’яснення або доповнення складеного раніше висновку експерта. Розкрито поняття «роз’яснення висновку експерта», причини необхідності роз’яснень і доповнень.

Ключові слова: допит експерта, спеціальні знання, висновок експерта, роз’яснення, доповнення, повістки-повідомлення.

Кравчук Т. А. Привлечение специалиста и допрос судебного эксперта для оценки и разъяснения экспертного заключения.

Рассмотрены вопросы допроса эксперта как следственного (судебного) действия, целью которого является получение разъяснения или дополнения составленного ранее заключения эксперта. Раскрыто понятие «разъяснение заключения эксперта», причины необходимости разъяснений и дополнений.

Ключевые слова: допрос эксперта, специальные знания, заключение эксперта, разъяснения, дополнения, повестки-сообщения.

Kravchuk T. Attraction specialist and court expert examination to assess the explanations and expert opinion.

Questions interrogation expert as investigative (forensic) actions whose aim is to clarify or supplement compiled before the expert. The concept of «clarifying the expert» reasons necessary clarifications and additions.

Key words: interrogation expert, expertise, expert opinion, clarifications, additions summons messages.

УДК 331.109

Купіна Л. Ф., Крилова Ю. І. Поняття, причини та класифікація трудових спорів.

У статті досліджуються поняття, причини та класифікація трудових спорів. Проведено порівняльний аналіз норм чинного законодавства України, які регулюють трудові спори. Висвітлено практику країн Західної Європи та США щодо застосування правових норм при вирішення трудових конфліктів.

Ключові слова: поняття, причина, працівник, виборний орган первинної профспілкової організації, страйк, трудовий спір.

Купина Л. Ф., Крылова Ю. И. Понятие, причины и классификация трудовых споров.

В статье исследуются понятие, причины и классификация трудовых споров. Проведен сравнительный анализ норм действующего законодательства Украины, регулирующих трудовые споры. Освещена практика стран Западной Европы и США по применению правовых норм при разрешении трудовых конфликтов.

Ключевые слова: понятие, причина, работник, выборный орган первичной профсоюзной организации, забастовка, трудовой спор.

L. Kupina, Y. Krylova. The notion of cause and classification of labor disputes.

In Ukraine, as in any other country in the flow of labour relations, the parties of the employment contract cannot always agree on the implementation of a significant, and additional conditions of the employment contract, which in turn leads to disputes between them. Violation of labour rights has always been a pressing problem of the society, and recently, with the deepening of the economic crisis, there is a certain disregard for laws governing staff relations. The law provides the right of citizens to judicial protection and it is the most important guarantee of labour rights in market conditions. Violation of labour legislation is now the main cause of both individual and collective labour disputes among the conditions that outline the legal component of work one should highlight the imperfections of the current labour legislation (the existence of gaps in the regulation of labour relations, fuzzy formulations, giving reasons for their different interpretation), also «outdated» and discrepancy of existing labour laws to new social and economic relations.

The law provides the classification of certain labour disputes. Thus, the types of the labour disputes can be classified according to the following grounds: by the subject; by the city; by the nature and the order of consideration (jurisdiction). The labour disputes are distinguished on individual and collective  ones by the subjects. The subjects of the collective labour agreement are:

  • At the production level – employees (certain categories of employees) of the enterprises, institutions, organizations or their departments or the elected body of primary trade union or other authorized employees and employer organization;
  • At the  sectoral and local levels – employees of the enterprises, institutions and organizations of one or more sectors (occupations) or the administrative units or the elective body of primary trade union organization, their associations or other authorized bodies of these employees and employers,  unions’ employers;
  • At the national level – employees of one or more sectors (occupations) or the elective body of primary trade union organization or the association or other authorized  employees and employers, associations of owners or their authorized agencies (representatives) in the most administrative units of Ukraine.

According the nature individual labour disputes are divided into disputes about application of labour law, and disputes about establishing new or changing existing conditions. For example, disputes about reinstatement of removal of disciplinary sanctions, the recovery of wages belong to the disputes on the application of current labour legislation.

In the West generally accepted division of labour disputes by the subject of composition and the subject matter on the four main types is: collective and individual conflicts of interests (economic) and conflicts of law (legal). Conflicts of interest arise from the requirements of establishing new or changing existing conditions; conflicts of law concerning the interpretation or application of established law, collective agreements or other legal acts.

The conciliation-arbitration procedure includes three methods: negotiation parties, conciliation (mediation), labour arbitration. This conciliation-mediation process does not allow establishment of a labour dispute. Mediation can be forced and voluntary. In Western countries courts hear and decide the legal (individual and collective) labour disputes, and sometimes, in the US – the administrative authorities. In the most European countries, such disputes are discussed in the specialized courts on labour matters. The competence of these courts is to resolve individual and collective labour disputes. However, the rules of civil procedure law are used, but significant procedural peculiarities of consideration of labour disputes also exist.

Key words: concept, the reasons, the employee, an elected body of primary trade union organization, strike, labor dispute.

УДК 342.9

Лоюк І. А. Світові тенденції розвитку процедур ліцензування банків.

У статті досліджуються питання сучасного стану та можливих шляхів розвитку процедур ліцензування банківської діяльності в світі. Аналізуються проблеми, які постають перед регуляторами банківської справи у зв’язку з переходом до інтернет-банкінгу. Окреслено стан вітчизняного законодавства щодо регулювання процедур ліцензування. Доводиться, що у порівнянні зі світовими тенденціями, в Україні відбуваються процеси посилення регуляторних вимог у частині входження банків на ринок. Наголошується на необхідності прийняття закону про адміністративну процедуру.

Ключові слова: процедури ліцензування, мобільний банкінг, інтернет-банкінг, закон про адміністративну процедуру.

Лоюк И. А. Мировые тенденции развития процедур лицензирования банков.

В статье исследуются вопросы современного состояния и возможных путей развития процедур лицензирования банковской деятельности в мире. Анализируются проблемы, возникающие перед регуляторами банковского дела в связи с переходом к интернет-банкингу. Определено состояние отечественного законодательства по регулированию процедур лицензирования. Доказывается, что по сравнению с мировыми тенденциями, в Украине происходят процессы усиления регуляторных требований в части вхождения банков на рынок. Отмечается необходимость принятия закона об административной процедуре.

Ключевые слова: процедуры лицензирования, мобильный банкинг, интернет-банкинг, закон об административной процедуре.

Loyuk I. World trends in bank licensing procedures.

Currently Ukraine continues to live in a system that has all signs of administrative-command system. Rights, freedoms and lawful interests of individuals enclosed in the Constitution basically are offset by the establishment of normative sub-legislative acts, unreasonably complicated administrative procedures which out obstacles on the free provision to implementing opportunities. Thus, there is a clear need for the implementation of European law in the Ukrainian principles of good administration and good governance, including through implementation of administrative procedures.

One of the excellent examples of this situation is licensing. In academic circles and among lawyers-practitioners licensing of the business activity in general and banking in particular is actively discussed currently both in the realm of definition and the need for a general license procedures.

As the result of the analysis of scientific sources author proves the need to determine licensing procedure as an official certification (recognition) of economic entities to conduct certain types of activities in compliance with the rules, regulations and standards. The urgency of adoption in Ukraine the law on administrative procedure is being stressed.

This article examines current state and possible ways of licensing procedures introduction into the world of banking. The problems faced by banking regulators in connection with the transition to Internet banking. In particular in the developed countries with the stable traditions of rights and freedoms and the elimination of restrictions on free competition sustained discussion on the possibilities of further rejection of licensing. This approach means that market access should be free, without setting any barriers in the form of licensing because licensing is a precautionary measure which does not help and does not act as further guarantee the stability of the bank. Mutually this enhances system of prudential supervision in the banking sector taking into account technological progress and development of IT technology – entry of new players in the banking market is driven. Outlined the state of the domestic laws concerning licensing procedures regulating banking activity.

It is shown that in comparison with global trends, in Ukraine there are processes of strengthening regulatory requirements as regards the entry of banks into the market, there is a tacit ban on registration of new banks made a total cancellation of licenses, which adversely affects the reputation of the country and not the impetus for the development of its economy.

In general while analyzing the achievements of scientists around the world it is claimed by the author that there end to be logic in rejection of licensing in the banking sector in Ukraine and the transition to the informing registration procedures in the banks.

Key words: licensing procedures, mobile banking, Internet banking, the Administrative Procedure Act.

УДК 340.142

Луцький Р. П. Позитивно-правові засади відбору, призначення та кар’єрного росту судді як прогресивний елемент забезпечення «якості правосуддя» в Україні.

З проголошенням незалежності України проблематика правосуддя стала предметом численних наукових дискусій. Увага вітчизняних науковців, політологів, юристів була прикута до проблем удосконалення організації судової влади, процесуальних гарантій забезпечення судочинства, питань судового захисту прав, свобод і законних інтересів громадян. Проблематика «якості правосуддя» має великий загальнотеоретичний потенціал, який поєднує в собі необхідність розкриття не лише цілей, завдань, багатоаспектного внутрішнього змісту правосуддя, а й переосмислення багатьох традиційних уявлень у цій сфері.

Ключові слова: суддя, право, прогрес, стандарти, позитивне право, правові засади, «якість правосуддя».

Луцкий Р. П. Позитивно-правовые принципы отбора, назначения и карьерного роста судьи как прогрессивный элемент обеспечения «качества правосудия» в Украине.

С провозглашением независимости Украины проблематика правосудия стала предметом многочисленных научных дискуссий. Внимание отечественных научных работников, политологов, юристов было обращено на проблемы усовершенствования организации судебной власти, процессуальных гарантий обеспечения судопроизводства, вопросы судебной защиты прав, свобод и законных интересов граждан. Проблематика «качества правосудия» имеет большой общетеоретический потенциал, который совмещает в себе необходимость раскрытия не только целей, заданий, многоаспектного внутреннего содержания правосудия, но и переосмысление многих традиционных представлений в этой сфере.

Ключевые слова: судья, право, прогресс, стандарты, позитивное право, правовые принципы, «качество правосудия».

Lutcky R. Positive-law principles of selection, setting and quarry growth of judge, as a progressive element of providing «qualities of justice» are in Ukraine.

With proclamation of independence of Ukraine problematic of justice became the article of numerous scientific discussions. Attention of domestic research workers, political scientists, lawyers, was an appeal on the problems of improvement of organization of department judicial, judicial guarantees of providing of the legal proceeding, by the question of judicial defense of rights, freedoms and legal interests of citizens. Problematic of «quality of justice» has large general theoretic potential, which combines in itself the necessity of opening not only of aims, tasks, multidimensional internal maintenance of justice, but also redefined of many traditional presentations is in this sphere.

Today many researches of theory of law are directed on an improvement and strengthening of authority of department judicial in society by the increase of level of trust of public to realization of justice. Exactly theoretical searches influence on character of public environment which forms the authoritative constituent of realization of the legal proceeding, coming into the notice of public to the problems of realization of justice, and also improvement of level of knowledge of citizens, in relation to activity of the modern judicial system of Ukraine.

Positive law the standards of forming of professional and independent judge corps  are declared both at international legal level and at the level of the national states the legislation of which in a greater or less measure takes into account the substantive provisions of international legal acts in this sphere. In particular, in the norms of international and European law basic principles of selection, setting of judges, are fastened and them quarry growth, which belong to the number of the most meaningful guarantees of independence of department judicial.

Also with acceptance of new release of Law of Ukraine «About judicature and status of judges» first in history of Ukraine at normative level a tendency was set to high-quality reformation of justice at Ukraine, about efficiency of which it is impossible to conduct speech, if the clear are not marked in a legislation positions, devoted regulation of order of attracting of judges to disciplinary responsibility, including the concrete extended list of disciplinary penalties which can be imposed on a judge for the feasance of that or other breach of discipline.

Such new understanding of institute of disciplinary responsibility of judges, and consequently, and stipulating of legal status of judge from point of the special requirements which are produced conforms to separate international recommendations and standards in the field of justice: a judge discovers and supports the high standards of conduct of judges with the purpose of strengthening of public trust to the judicial bodies, that has a near-term value for support of independence of judicial bodies; conduct of judge in the process of meeting and after the walls of court must be instrumental in support and growth of trust of society, representatives of legal profession and sides, in business in relation to objectivity of judges and judicial establishments; a judge must demonstrate a conduct, irreproachable even from point of extraneous observer; a judge must adhere to the ethics norms, shutting out the display of improper conduct during realization of any activity which is related to his position. Taking into account permanent attention from the side of society, judge consciously, voluntarily and gladly undertakes necessary for support of own dignity limitations which can be examined ordinary citizens, as burdensome, and has no authority to carry on activity which is incompatible with assiduous implementation of judicial functions.

It is thus possible to conclude, that passing an Act of Ukraine «About providing of right on a just court» became the first step normatively legal providing of optimum balance between principle of independence of judges and effective control after their activity. Law norms are in fact accepted a legislator first in independent Ukraine fastened the real possibility to influence on judges which unconscientiously the fixed execute on them people and state of function.

Key words: judge, law, progress, principles, positive law, law principles, «quality of justice».

УДК 340.1

Любченко Я. П. Медіація як альтернативний спосіб вирішення правових спорів.

У статті досліджується медіація, її поняття та ознаки, перспективи розвитку в Україні, а також аналізується законопроект про медіацію, зареєстрований під № 3665 від 17 грудня 2015 р.

Ключові слова: медіація, альтернативні способи вирішення спорів, законопроект, посередництво, спір, суди.

Любченко Я. П. Медиация как альтернативный способ разрешения правовых споров.

В статье исследуется медиация, ее понятие и признаки, перспективы развития в Украине, а также анализируется законопроект про медиацию под № 3665 от 17 декабря 2015 г.

Ключевые слова: медиация, альтернативные способы решения споров, законопроект, посредничество, спор, суды.

Liubchenko Ya. Mediation as alternative method of legal dispute resolution.

This paper explore mediation, its definition and characteristics, perspectives of development in Ukraine. Moreover, author analyze bill on mediation № 3665 date on 17.12.2015.

Key words: mediation, alternative dispute resolution, bill, dispute, courts.

УДК 328.12

Мироненко В. П. Правові аспекти формування парламентської коаліції.

Розглянуто правові засади регулювання створення та діяльності парламентської коаліції, що містяться у Конституції України, Регламенті Верховної Ради України, рішеннях Конституційного Суду України. Вказано на непослідовність позиції КСУ у питанні про природу коаліції депутатських фракцій. Проаналізовано еволюцію коаліційних угод в Україні та їх особливості. Зроблено висновок про недостатнє правове регулювання питань діяльності та розпуску парламентської коаліції.

Ключові слова: парламентська коаліція, депутатська фракція, конституція, парламент, конституційний суд, коаліційна угода.

Мироненко В. П. Правовые аспекты формирования парламентской коалиции.

Рассмотрены правовые основы регулирования создания и деятельности парламентской коалиции, содержащиеся в Конституции Украины, Регламенте Верховной Рады Украины, решениях Конституционного Суда Украины. Указано на непоследовательность позиции КСУ в вопросе о природе коалиции депутатских фракций. Проанализирована эволюция коалиционных соглашений в Украине и их особенности. Сделан вывод о недостаточном правовом регулирование вопросов деятельности и роспуска парламентской коалиции.

Ключевые слова: парламентская коалиция, депутатская фракция, конституция, парламент, конституционный суд, коалиционное соглашение.

Myronenko V. Legal aspects of parliamentary coalition formation.

Today, the legal basis of the parliamentary coalition consists of the Constitution of Ukraine, the Regulations of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine and the decisions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine. Art. 83 of the Constitution of Ukraine stipulates that according to the parliament election results and on the basis of agreed political positions, a coalition of parliamentary factions, which includes the majority of people's deputies of Ukraine the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, more than 226 parliamentarians can be formed in the parliament. It must be formed within one month from the date of the first meeting of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, which is held after regular or special election, or within one month after termination of the parliament coalition in the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.

The coalition of parliamentary factions in the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine in accordance with this Constitution makes proposals to the President of Ukraine on the candidacy of Prime Minister of Ukraine, as well as nominations to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.

The first edition of the Regulations of Verkhovna Rada in 2010 containing rules governing the establishment, operation and dissolution of coalitions in the parliament. However, as a result of changes now the process of creating coalition, making changes in its structure, its termination does not have adequate legal support. Typically, members and leadership of the Verkhovna Rada are guided by the provisions of Art. 61-67, which were excluded from the Regulations.

Traditional sections of the coalition agreements between parliamentary parties in Ukraine are: priorities or program principles of the coalition; general principles of formation and activities of the coalition; coalition governing bodies; coalition interaction with the President of Ukraine, Prime Minister of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, parliamentary opposition; conciliation procedures and personnel matters; ethical principles of the coalition; termination of the coalition.

The legal status of the parliamentary coalition in Ukraine is insufficiently regulated, leading to a different understanding of the procedure changes in its composition and mechanism of its termination. A partial solution would be to return Chapter 12 to the Regulations of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, which regulated some important issues of parliamentary coalition.

Key words: parliamentary coalition, parliamentary fraction, constitution, parliament, constitutional court, coalition agreement.


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