Анотації до статей 2017

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Кабанець О. С. Ціннісно-правові аспекти демократії: актуальні питання сучасності.
Стаття присвячена аналізу становлення сучасної демократії через призму правових цінностей, зокрема таких як праворозуміння, верховенство права, невідчужувані права і свободи людини, справедливість, рівність. Надається авторське визначення поняття «демократичні цінності».

Ключові слова: демократія, правові цінності, права людини, рівність, свобода, справедливість, верховенство права.

Кабанец А. С. Ценностно-правовые аспекты демократии: актуальные вопросы современности.
Статья посвящена анализу становления современной демократии через призму правовых ценностей, в частности таких как правопонимание, верховенство права, неотчуждаемые права и свободы человека, справедливость, равенство.

Дается авторское определение понятия «демократические ценности».

Ключевые слова: демократия, правовые ценности, права человека, равенство, свобода, справедливость, верховенство права.

Kabanets O. Values and legal principles of modern democracy.
The article is devoted to analysis of the development of modern democracy through the prism of legal values, such as legal thinking, the rule of law, inalienable rights and freedoms, justice, equality. Through the prism of the specified author’s definition of the concept of «democratic values».

Key words: democracy, legal values, human rights, equality, freedom, justice, the rule of law.

УДК 340.1

Капишін С. М. До питання становлення правозаконності в Україні: історичний аспект.
Аналізується ідея правозаконності через призму історії в часи перебування України в складі Князівства Литовського, Польщі та Гетьманату. Прослідковується розвиток права та забезпечення прав людини за Литовськими Статутами, а також в добу козацтва. Приділяється особлива увага Конституції Пилипа Орлика як моделі правової держави.

Ключові слова: право, закон, верховенство права, правозаконність, права людини, «Руська правда», Литовські Статути, Конституція Пилипа Орлика.

Капышин С. Н. К вопросу о становлении правозаконності в Украине: исторический аспект.
Анализируется идея правозаконности через призму истории во времена пребывания Украины в составе Княжества Литовского, Польши и Гетьманата. Прослеживается развитие права и обеспечения прав человека в Литовских Уставах, а также за время казачества. Уделяется особое внимание Конституции Пилипа Орлика как модели правового государства.

Ключевые слова: право, закон, верховенство права, правозаконность, права человека, «Русская Правда», Литовские Уставы, Конституция Пилипа Орлика.

Kapyshin S. On the question of the formation of the rule of law in Ukraine: historical aspect.
Since ancient times, in different cultures of the world, ranging from ancient philosophers the question of right, law, human rights and freedoms was studied with the theories of the state emergence. The article focuses on the genesis of law development on the territory of modern Ukraine. It is mentioned that brilliant example of antique democracy—oath of Chersonesus citizen, which mentions protection of citizens’ freedom, fight with corruption, protection of democratic system, fair trial, etc.—was created on the Ukrainian land.

Norms of The Pravda Rus'skaia are analyzed, it is pointed out that they arose on local grounds and were result of legal thought development in Kyiv Rus. So, our ancestors were carriers of high (for that time) legal culture.

The Pravda Rus'skaia had considerable impact on development of law of western and north-eastern Slavs, significantly influenced the formation of such monuments of law as Statutes of Lithuania.

It is further mentioned that Statutes of Lithuania (1529, 1566, 1588), especially the last one, which many contemporaries considered the most advanced code of law in Europe, secured a number of innovative approaches to the status of a person. For all subjects of state were set the unity of law and equality before the law.

In condition of polonization of Ukrainian elite, Zaporizhian Sich became center of liberation movement, major factor of Ukrainian state formation. On  Zaporizhian Sich there was a kind of legal system. Cossacks did not accept the Statutes of Lithuania and Magdeburg rights. Universal source of law on the Sich was the customary law that regulated the procedure for the election of cossacks’ officers, justice, rules of military operations, the order of land use, the procedure for concluding certain types of contracts, types of crimes and punishment system. The appearance of Cossacks signified new age in national history with new content and composition. Admission to Sich community meant taking a commitment to serve their own people, perform certain military duties. Analysis of Cossack self-organization and justice gives reason to believe that here the Ukrainian state revived.

The article also states that Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk (1710) to some extent is considered the pinnacle of Cossacks’ rule-making. In different historical and legal sources, the document is called differently (Bendery Constitution, “Pacts and Constitutions of Rights and Freedoms of the Zaporizhian Host”, agreement between Cossacks and Hetman of Mala Rus).

Constitution of Ukraine immediately after the adoption was recognized by governments of Sweden and Turkey. Even today its amazes with relevance and high legal level. Scientists and politicians reasonably believe nowadays that, by implementing ideas of its mastermind I. Mazepa, as state act of republican kind it was 80 years ahead of ideas of French Revolution. Ukrainian Constitution (1710) was a real model of a free, independent state that would be established on the natural right of its citizens for freedom and self-determination.

Key words: law, statute, rule of law, pravozakonnist, human rights, Ruska Pravda, Lithuanian Statute, Konstytutsiya of Orlyk.

УДК 340.11; 930.1

Карпічков В. О. Історико-правова реальність як форма буття права у просторово-часовій площині.

Досліджується історико-правова реальність як особлива форма буття права у просторово-часовій площині. Здійснений теоретико-категоріальний аналіз таких понять, як «реальність» та «історична реальність». Розкривається зміст історико-правової реальності на підставі аналізу категорій «реальність» та «історична реальність». Автором надається власне бачення та визначення історико-правової реальності, її ознак і структури.

Ключові слова: право, історія, реальність, історична реальність, правова реальність, правова дійсність, історико-правова реальність.

Карпичков В. А. Историко-правовая реальность как форма бытия права в пространственно-временной плоскости.
Исследуется историко-правовая реальность как особая форма бытия права в пространственно-временной плоскости. Проведенный теоретико-категориальный анализ таких понятий, как «реальность» и «историческая реальность». Раскрывается содержание историко-правовой реальности на основе анализа категорий «реальность» и «историческая реальность». Автором предоставляется собственное виденье и определение историко-правовой реальности, ее признаков и структуры.

Ключевые слова: право, история, реальность, историческая реальность, правовая реальность, правовая действительность, историко-правовая реальность.

Karpichkov V. Historical and legal reality as a form of being right in the space-time plane.
Abstract: the article examines the historical and legal reality as a special form of law being in the space-time plane. Research of historical and legal reality remains one of the controversial issues of domestic and foreign legal philosophy, which is closely linked to basic questions of methodology of science about what is meant by "reality" that is its nature and takes place right in the historical reality. Ownership of law to the historical reality determines the need to rethink the understanding of the historical and legal reality and focusing on the main features of this category as a special form of law being in the space-time plane.

Theoretical and categorical analysis of such concepts as "reality" and "historical reality is placed." Before we reveal the nature and content of the historical and legal reality, it is necessary to examine the content of such categories as "reality" and "historical reality." The reality is a complex multidimensional phenomenon that is constructed of a plurality of different planes and describes the objective of being just "here" and "now." The reality is the totality of all things, structures (factual and conceptual), events, actions and phenomena of reality. In other words, the reality can include anything that people can see, hear, comprehend, understand and describe through the senses and world view.

One of the varieties of historical reality is reality. Category "historical reality" is used to refer to a special kind of reality that is space-time structure, objective and subjective in nature and includes being of all aspects of reality without exception (things, structures, systems, events, actions, phenomena, etc.) in a certain historical period of society and/or the state.

It is shown the contents of historical and legal reality on the basis of the analysis of categories "reality" and "historical reality." Historical detachment gives legal validity to assert that the historical and legal reality is a complex system which is constructed of a plurality of different legal phenomena that objectively exist in a given society within a particular space-time plane. Historical and legal reality have a complex structure, which on one hand is due to specifics of legal reality, and with another space-time structure of the story. The structure of the legal historical reality has the law in all its forms and manifestations, its formation, dynamics and evolution within specific temporal boundaries of the existence of a particular society.

The author has given proper definition of the historical and legal reality as a complex multifaceted category that is used to describe the historical existence of law, of all its manifestations and the entire diversity of legal reality specific aspects of society and / or the state in the space-time plane, limited within the framework of historical knowledge.

Key words: law, history, reality, historical reality, legal reality, the legal reality, historical and legal reality.

УДК 34.01+316.43

Кобан О. Г. Діяльність виконавчої гілки влади як об’єкт соціалізації.

У статті розглядаються деякі питання діяльності виконавчої влади в аспекті людиноцентристського та ціннісно-орієнтованого праворозуміння. Обґрунтовано положення про те, що поглиблення соціалізації виконавчої влади є запорукою її успішної діяльності.

Ключові слова: виконавча влада, право, суспільство, людина, соціалізація.

Кобан О. Г. Деятельность исполнительной ветви власти как объект социализации.
В статье рассматриваются некоторые вопросы деятельности исполнительной власти в аспекте человекоцентристского и ценностно-ориентированного правопонимания. Обосновано положение о том, что углубление социализации исполнительной власти является залогом ее успешной деятельности.

Ключевые слова: исполнительная власть, право, общество, человек, социализация.

Coban O. The activity of the executive branch of power as an object of socialization.
This article examines some issues of work of executive branch in terms of human-centric and value-oriented legal consciousness. There has been established the statement that deepening of socialization of executive branch is the key to its successful work.

The priority directions of implementation of human-centric approach into the socialization of executive branch and into the system should be the following:
  • modernization of Ukrainian state functioning and approximation of the state machinery to citizens (not vice versa);
  • overcoming of political preconception in the functioning of bodies of state executive branch;
  • formation of an atmosphere of social harmony, social partnership and cooperation with the view to both harmonization of relations in the format "state – society – personality" that will allow for self-development and self-realization of personal potential of each citizen and the real transformation of the citizens of Ukraine from the status of consumers of public services to the status of equal partners of the state;
  • refusal of directing executive branch to attendance of state and administrative staff in favor of improving quality characteristics of social life of citizens;
  • necessity to transfer the process of design and  decision-making by executive branch to a clear plane;
  • borrowing of the foreign experience of executive branch on the basis of efficient adaptation with the view of real improving of work and results of functioning of state authorities at all levels, and as a result, improving of the social life of all the Ukrainians;
  • raising the nationwide issue about the need to develop a new paradigm of management theory, dictated by the demands of today's society to executive branch;
  • modernizing of the state machine with the aim of bringing it closer to citizens (and not citizens to it) and transferring them to the status of partners by widening the list and improvement in quality of public services provided by state executive bodies at all levels;
  • development of new regulatory support to be based on single European administrative space, as well as current research in this area.
Thus, the work of state executive branch and its socialization is in satisfaction of the society's needs in effective state administration and enforcement of the rights of citizens to high-quality public services.
Key words: executive power, law, society, man, socialization.

УДК 340.12

Козаченко В. М. Правова свідомість як джерело права у мусульманській правовій системі.

У статті розглядаються основні джерела мусульманського права через призму їх сприйняття і відтворення правосвідомістю. До перших належать: Коран, Суна, іджма, кіяс. Стверджується, що правосвідомість у сприйнятті Корану виконує функцію ретранслятора волі Аллаха. У випадку Суни – їй належить роль феномена, що відтворює події, пов’язані з діяльністю Мухаммеда як пророка Аллаха. Найбільш креативну роль правосвідомість виконує при застосуванні такого засобу формування мусульманського права, як колективного обговорення найбільш авторитетними знавцями шаріату питань, прямо не врегульованих Кораном та Суною. Свій вираз такі обговорення знаходять в іджмі – узгодженому висновку цих стародавніх знавців шаріату. Кіяс – джерело ісламського права, де через використання раціональних механізмів правосвідомості, зокрема логічних операцій за аналогію, подібною до сучасних аналогії права та закону, відбувається його формування.

Ключові слова: правосвідомість, мусульманське право, Коран, Суна, іджма, кіяс.

Козаченко В. М. Правовое сознание как источник права в мусульманской правовой системе.
В статье рассматриваются основные источники мусульманского права через призму их восприятия и воспроизводства правосознанием. К первым относятся Коран, Суна, иджма, кияс. Утверждается, что правосознание в восприятии Корана выполняет роль ретранслятора воли Аллаха. В случае Суны – ему принадлежит роль феномена, который воспроизводит события, связанных с деятельностью Мухаммеда как пророка Аллаха. Наиболее креативную роль правосознание выполняет при применении такого способа формирования норм мусульманского права, как коллективное обсуждение наиболее авторитетными знатоками шариата вопросов, прямо не урегулированных Кораном или Суной. Свою материализацию такие обсуждения находят в иджме – согласованному выводу этих древних знатоков шариата. Кияс – следующий источник мусульманского права, где через использование рациональных механизмов правосознания, в частности логической операции аналогии, похожей на современные аналогию права и закона, происходит его формирование.

Ключевые слова: правосознание, мусульманское право, Коран, Суна, иджма, кияс.

Kozachenko V. M. Legal consciousness as a source of law in Muslim legal system.
As the events of the Revolution Dignity in Ukraine in 2013-2014, the sense of justice of citizens is an important factor in the functioning of democracy and the rule of law. Therefore, considerable scientific and practical value of scientific study of this phenomenon of legal reality (legal system). From the point of view of the author, a comparative research method is most informative for the study of any social phenomena, including legal. In this regard, is of academic interest comparative studies of legal consciousness as a source of law in such an original legal system as Muslim.

It is recognized posidonian origin of Muslim law. His parsererror believe the will of Allah, who through his prophet Mohammed told it to the people. As claimed by the Arab scholar Subhi Mahmasani: "Islamic law is a divine right in its sources and primary rules. It gets its force not from authority, but the will of Allah." (3, p. 9). The stated will of God found its expression in the Koran - the Holy book of all Muslims, which consists of various sermons, prayers, legal prescriptions, didactic stories and parables that were uttered by Mohammed in Mecca and Medina. The contents of the Qur'an are the sayings of Allah, his prophet and messenger Muhammad.

Thus, with respect to the Quran as main book to all Muslims, we can say that its meaning was retranslatori Muhammad after divine revelations that he received from Allah. In other words, the consciousness of the prophet played the role of a conductor of ideas of God.

The second most important after the Quran the source of Islamic law was recognized Suna – book, which contained information regarding the actions, statements, and even silence of the prophet Muhammad. Unlike the Koran, which contained the instruction of Allah to his prophet, Suna is a collection adtv, traditions, concerning the description of Muhammad, reproduced and processed number of well-known in that period, theologians and lawyers. The contents of the Sunnah are authentic hadith, each of which is a retelling of the actions and sayings of the prophet. It is clear that in this case the role of the legal consciousness of these persons was to relay playback information that was obtained (directly or indirectly) from witnesses activities of the prophet Muhammad.

Since neither the Qur'an or Suna was not a systematic source of Islamic jurisprudence, ancient judges of Muslims, the role of which in most cases were performed by famous theologians were forced to use various forms of interpretation above sources. Among the latter – the use of analogy, which received the name of kiasu. Without risking to depart from the canons, Muslim jurists had established a rule that the use of razionalismo techniques possible only when logical conclusions for any particular question, you can find an analogy in the Quran and hadith.

In connection with the above, Islamic law has gained the recognition of the third source of Islamic law. Obvious here is the role of justice of the ancient Muslim jurists-theologians, taking a sample of the Qur'an and Sung, formulated the new regulations, which, however, cannot be considered completely independent – as the creation of man. According to Muslim jurists, men are only executors of the will of Allah, which leads them by the hand, through them, manifests his will. Their only job is to submit to the will of Allah in the form of norms, articles of the Chapter .

In Islamic law there is one source, which is called ijma. A. S. Pholks determines JMU as consistent conclusion of the ancient jurists, scholars of Islam on the responsibilities of the faithful who have received the law of truth, which proceeds from the Qur'an and Sunnah. Ijma acts as a kind of means, which acts as a filler of the gaps in Islamic law in those cases when neither the Qur'an or Suna can't give a convincing answer to the questions. But the main feature of this source of law was the unanimity that was expressed mujtahidi, Muftis, Muslim theologians-lawyers) in addressing specific issues not covered by the Qur'an and Snow, the introduction of new rules of behavior on the basis of consensus, i.e. the absence of dissent. But unlike the Qur'an and Sunnah, ijma – the source of Islamic law, which is subject to change as the norms contained in his soil may be revised.

As seen from the above, the role of justice of Muslim jurists in this case was the interpretation of the Quran and Sunnah and the agreement of their legal positions when specific issues on the basis of the immutability of the provisions of these sacred Muslim books.

Key words: awareness, Islamic law, Qur’an, sunah, ijma, kiyas.

УДК 340.134 (045)

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