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УДК 340.1

Новіцький В. В. Методологія наукового дослідження юридичних гарантій прав людини.
У статті приділено увагу функціональному значенню методології в праві. Таким чином, було зроблено спробу відповісти на запитання про те, що являє собою правовий інститут методології в контексті юриспруденції. Окрему увагу приділено аналізу етимологічній сутності таких дефініцій, як «методологія» та «метод».
Крім того, було всебічно розкрито термінологічно-категоріальний апарат цієї проблематики. Автором статті надано власне визначення методології в його вузькому та широкому розумінні. Досліджено питання класифікації методів наукового дослідження.

Ключові слова: методологія в праві, метод наукового дослідження, термінологічно-категоріальний апарат, дефініція, наука, наукова діяльність, права людини, юридичні гарантії.

Novitskyi V. Methodology of scientific research of legal guarantees of human rights.
The article substantiates the relevance, importance of studying the problems of the methodology of law for the theory of state and law in general and for each scientist in particular. After all, the methodology and its cognitive tools, act as an assistant in conducting scientific research and help the lawyer choose the most optimal way to study a particular object of scientific research. A sufficiently large volume of profile literature has been analyzed, which allows us to form a completely stable presentation, concerning the ambiguity and discussion of this topic. In addition, attention was paid to the need for a full-fledged, professional study of such problematic issues: 1) the problem of categoricallylegal apparatus of the legal institute of methodology in law; 2 ) classification of scientific research methods.
In studying the terminological problem, the author drew attention to the presence in the legal literature of a large number of concepts, namely: methodology of science, methodology of scientific research, methodology of scientific knowledge, methodology of the theory of state and law, methodology of a specific dissertation research, methodology of legal science, methodology comparatively legal research. These definitions essentially aim at explaining and disclosing the meaning of such a term as a «methodology» in the context of jurisprudence, but such a range of concepts can lead to a false idea of their fundamentally different nature. In this case, the peculiarity of these legal categories is explained by the specifics of the object of scientific research, which dictated the choice of those or other cognitive tools. With the purpose of a certain systematization of these processes, the author of the article, it is suggested to choose the legal category «methodology», as «generic» concept, «methodology of legal science», as «kind», and «methodology of comparative legal research», as «directly-about» conceptual «concept». In the article, taking into account the positions of scientists, the explanation of each of the recommended concepts is given.
In addition, the meaning of the concept, «methodology» and «method» are analyzed, taking into account their etymological essence. In the article, the specified legal categories are considered in the narrow and wide sense.
The author of the presented scientific work, the actual definition of the definition of «methodology» in the context of the theory of state and law. Thus, under this category, it is proposed to understand the doctrine of methods, as well as other means of knowledge such as: principles, approaches, categories, forms of activities of the researcher, which help the scientist, to analyze the selected object, research subject and provide the necessary tools for further implementation of the results in the practical-application plane.
Particular attention is paid to the problems of monism and pluralism of scientific research methods. According to the author of the article, to the question of the choice of research methods, it is necessary to approach cautiously and responsibly, since it may depend on the objectivity of the results of the scientific activity. Consequently, the proposed recommendations can be a good continuation for further study and improvement of such an uncommon legal institution as the methodology in the law.

Key words: methodology in law, method of scientific research, terminological-categorical apparatus, definition, science, scientific activity, human rights, legal guarantees.

УДК 340.1

Огнев’юк Г. З. Правова визначеність і партикуляризм: вітчизняний та зарубіжний досвід.
Стаття присвячена розгляду принципу правової визначеності крізь призму загального філософського терміна «партикуляризм». Автор стверджує, що принцип правової визначеності є загальним принципом права, однак прямо у Конституції та інших законодавчих актах не визначений його зміст. Водночас правова визначеність є невід’ємно притаманною праву Європейського Союзу, застосованим принципом при вирішенні справ Європейським судом з прав людини. Правова визначеність у працях українських учених тлумачиться не буквально як визначеність правової норми, а як визначеність правової системи загалом. Значення принципу правової визначеності втілюється у вимогах до змісту норм права та вимогах до його реалізації. Зокрема, до вимог цього принципу включають чіткість і ясність законодавства, дотримання процедури прийняття й оприлюднення нормативних актів, захист легітимних очікувань осіб, обмеження дискреційних повноважень органів влади. Складність розуміння принципу правової визначеності полягає у необхідності об’єднання в одному понятті різних партикулярних вимог, що мають свій самостійний зміст. У цьому контексті розкрито поняття партикуляризм, встановлено, що в контексті правової визначеності партикулярний розгляд із розтягуванням поняття на складові та їх відокремленим аналізом може загрожувати втраті цілісності поняття або призводити до звуження його змісту.

Ключові слова: правова визначеність, загальний принцип права, партикуляризм, цілісність у праві.

Ogneviuk G. Legal certainty and particularism: national and foreign experience.
The article is devoted to the question of legal certainty principle in the context of particularism. Particularism is a sociologic, philosophical, juridical notion, which means a process of secession, separation and detachment of particular interest. In jurisprudence it can be seen as a parting of the interests of some groups, as a tendency of autonomy, even as separatism. In the article it is regarded in its general meaning, which in the context of legal certainty appears to be controversial to universality and generality.
The principle of legal certainty is not named in the Constitution of Ukraine but despite this fact it is widely used in courts decisions in Ukraine and in European Court of Human Rights. So it is embodied in the law system. There are different points of view weather this principal is in function only in the law –making procedure or it spreads its influence on the process of application of legal norms.
The systematic and full scientific research in this field is absent in Ukrainian law doctrine. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that it is a general principle that influences the process of making law, its use and interpret.
Legal certainty doesn’t only mean the clear and accurate legal technic, among its demands there also are: predictability of law, respect to the legitimate expectations, strict procedure demands of thru law-making process, obligatoryness of court decisions and others. So the meaning of legal certainty principle is shown in the number of abovementioned elements. Such situation forms the tendency in juridical research to regard particular element of legal certainty separately from the others. From one hand it has a positive effect – the element of legal certainty is precisely analyzed, all or the majority of the ways of using it are shown. But usually the link between this element and the other in connection with legal certainty as a general law principle is absent. It leads to the problem of a wide view on this principle. So on the other hand legal certainty pretend to loose its general meaning and wide influence on the law system of Ukraine.
It is stated that particularism in connection with legal certainty could lead to the narrowing of its value. While making research of one or some elements of legal certainty it is highly important to emphasize on its link with the other elements and to avoid trenching upon its integrity.

Key words: legal certainty, general law principle, particularism, integrity in law.

УДК 340.1

Одинець О. О. Громадянське суспільство: аналітичні аспекти формування та взаємодії з державою.
Стаття присвячена аналізу етапів становлення громадянського суспільства, з’ясуванню основних його властивостей та визначенню взаємодії з державою у різноманітних сферах суспільної комунікації. Обґрунтовано шляхи оптимізації та вдосконалення взаємодії держави і сучасного суспільства.

Ключові слова: громадянське суспільство, держава, особа, громадянин.

Odinets O. Civil society: analytical aspects of formation and interaction with the state.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the stages of formation of civil society, the clarification of its main features and the definition of interaction with the state in various spheres of social communication. The ways of optimization and improvement of interaction of the state and modern society are substantiated.
The further assertion of the statehood of a sovereign Ukraine largely depends on how deeply and comprehensively the theoretical basis of the laws of social phenomena at the present stage of society’s reformation will be. The stability and evolution of society depends on the perception of its quality, which is a key problem of social science, the theory and practice of state building and social development.
The purpose of the article is to study the process of forming a civil society in Ukraine, to identify the main obstacles to its development and to identify the factors that influence the effectiveness of the activities of new civil initiatives in the process of their interaction with the state.
Civil society is a socially organized structure that arises outside of political structures, but is directly dependent on the content and development of the political organization of society. Such elements of political organization as a clear separation of functions of state power, democratic legislation, legal opposition, multiparty system realize the values of social life, political and social freedom of people and their associations, determine the influence of civil society on the state.
In general, civil society is a society with a clear system of interaction at a high level within the scope of the right of free and equal citizens, public associations, when the state provides them with equal opportunities, provides an opportunity to freely and freely own and dispose of their prope rty, based on the legal basis and own discretion.
Formation as a key subject of modern civil society a free and responsible citizen, the formation of its institutional structures is a historical process, each stage of which marked an important step towards the acquisition of new rights and freedoms by individuals, as well as practical skills of political and public participation. Within this stage of the evolution of modern civil society there is a peculiar «formation» of a citizen who begins to realize himself as the bearer of inalienable rights and freedoms, a member of a certain polit ical community, which should become their guarantee.
The most relevant for the bulk of citizens at this stage are their socio-economic rights. Although most of the citizens predominantly hold the position of observers in relation to the state, their main efforts are directed towards the struggle for their material interests.
Within the next stage of the evolution of a modern civil society, a citizen becomes a person who realizes the need and is willing to take an active part in political and public life, considering such participation as a guarantee of the realization of his rights and freedoms. The formation of such a citizen was promoted not only by institutional but also by cultural, socio-psychological preconditions (creating people’s conviction that their best means of protecting their own interests are their joint actions). Actually different forms of activity of this particular citizen and contributed
to the acquisition of civil society of their advanced forms. Within the third stage of the evolution of modern civil society, diversification of forms of realization of civic activity, aimed at even greater socialization of the state and its transformation into an institution serving the society. The logical result of such activity is, on the one hand, increasing the responsibility of the state for the welfare of its citizens, and on the other – the increase of the responsibility of the citizens themselves for the quality of performance of the state functions and for the implementation of their own autonomous initiatives. Therefore, it is no coincidence that communitarian ideas and practices have expanded considerably in the most developed countries, the purpose of which is to synthesize the individual’s freedom and responsibility, to overcome the threat of social selfishness and atomization.
Thus, the role of civil society in relation to the state is manifested in the creation of social prerequisites for the realization of power and the introduction of democratic institutions. Although the state must maintain its own supremacy, it must nevertheless develop self-government and ensure universal suffrage in order to eliminate the possibility of usurpation of power by a pro-government minority.

Key words: civil society, state, person, citizen.

УДК 340.12

Осядла М. В. Особливості правової природи юридичного прогнозування.
У статті досліджується юридичне прогнозування як складне та багатоаспектне поняття, що визначає необхідність звернення до різноманітних галузей знань, а саме юриспруденції, соціології, філософії, теорії прав людини. Автор наголошує, що прогнозування розуміють як дослідження майбутнього стану процесів і явищ, темпів їх перебігу та конкретних термінів їх здійснення.
Окреслена позиція автора, що прогноз має доказову силу і належне наукове пояснення. Зроблено висновок, що підготовлена концепція правового прогнозу містить знання про майбутнє, тому володіє всіма ознаками наукового знання у формі наукового припущення (гіпотези).

Ключові слова: правова природа, прогноз, юридичний прогноз, правовий прогноз, функція права.

Osiadla M. Features of the nature of legal prediction.
The paper investigates the question of legal forecasting is a complex legal activity, consisting of a study of the future state of processes and phenomena, the pace of their flow and the specific timing for their implementation.
The prognosis has probative value and a proper scientific explanation. At the same time, the forecast can be refute by further historical changes in completely or in part, but in preparing the concept, the legal forecast contains knowledge about the future and possesses all the features of scientific knowledge in the form of scientific assumption. Summarizing the scientific analysis of the nature legal prediction important to emphasize that the quality of legislation is determine primarily by its social content, its compliance with social needs and interests.
In contrast, the empirical basis of the general theory of law, the forecast should anticipate and correctly anticipate the future of legal phenomena. This kind of knowledge can obtained in various ways, including because of intuition.
However, a kind of scientific research, the forecast becomes only when based on the provisions and conclusions of the general theory of law, other legal sciences and consists of the use of special methods of scientific knowledge.
The author determines that the development and improvement of legal forecasting research will provide an effective way of linking legal science and practice. Simultaneously, it will allow not only to realize the scientific provisions and conclusions in the form of recommendations on proper law or proposals for the improvement of legislation, but also to substantiate the reliability of the proposed measures in the future, taking into account the following social and other changes.
Indeed qualitative laws, laws that combine various social interests based on the creators of the common will, who have a high potential for self-realization, require the use of legal prognostication.
Consequently, only in such conditions the value of scientific, namely, legal and social forecasting, is dramatically increasing, and science as a specific social institution, designed and able to formulate and defend the interests of society as a whole, should take a more active social position in the implementation and implementation of legal forecasting in order to achieve social agreement.

Key words: legal nature, forecast, legal forecast, law forecast, function of law.

УДК 340.1

Очколяс Д. В. Науково-аналітична основа правової ідеології: шляхи підвищення ефективності.
У статті досліджено значення та природу правової ідеології, визначено її науково-практичну основу. Проаналізовано значення таких її складових, як праворозуміння, духовно-інтелектуальні передумови, взаємодія держави і громадянського суспільства. Обґрунтовано шляхи розвитку правової ідеології та роль теоретико-правової науки у його забезпеченні.

Ключові слова: правова ідеологія, теоретико-правова наука, державна політика, ефективність ідеології.

Ochollyas D. Scientific and analytical basis of legal ideology: ways to increase efficiency.
The article investigates the significance and nature of legal ideology, defines its scientific and practical basis.
The significance of such components as legal thinking, spiritual and intellectual prerequisites, interaction of the state and civil society are analyzed. The ways of development of legal ideology and the role of theoretical and legal science in its provision are substantiated.
The last two decades were characterized by significant social dynamics, which was reflected in the massive changes in political, economic, legal and cultural conditions of society. A qualitative change in the entire socio-cultural situation, including the type of economic and political system, could not but affect the legal consciousness of Ukrainian society, which was expressed, in particular, in changing the legal values underlying the national legal system. Given the scale of change, it is logical to assume that the forms of legal consciousness will undergo significant changes. After
all, legal ideology actually reflects the state of civil society and the legal system of the state. If we talk about the state of civil society, despite the fact that Ukraine has been a sovereign, independent, democratic, social state for more than a quarter of a century, the stage of formation and development of civil society is still going on and is rather protracted.
The events of recent years that have survived in Ukraine left their negative impression on the situation of civil society, because of the despondency to power and political forces, the activity of citizens in public life and thereby the formation of a democratic society has decreased.
Legal ideology is rightly considered, on the one hand, as an ideological counterweight, restriction and prohibition of unlawful acts and phenomena, and on the other hand – as a set of conceptually grounded ideas, principles and provisions,
incentives and motives that contribute to strengthening and establishing legitimate principles for the functioning of society. Thus, legal ideology can be a peculiar criterion of the assertion of the rule of law and law and order in the strategic, purpose-oriented sense, and tactically – the implementation of the adopted laws, which can not but affect the status of law as a system of social obligatory norms, the obser vance and execution of which is ensured by the state.
To ensure political stability in Ukraine, the state must be able to build its state ideology, which will be guided by its activities, which will ensure the integration of society and state and the integrity of the entire social system. Of course, for the construction of this type of ideology, the consent of both society itself and the state should be a prerequisite for directions of activity and prospects for future development.
In Ukraine today, two ways of development of legal ideology have been clearly defined: the classical liberal path and the way aimed at the revival of the traditional foundations of Ukrainian statehood and law and order. However, before society and the authorities, the actual task of not acquiring a new legal ideology appears, but the improvement of existing conceptual ideas about law (right-ideological modeling).
Speaking about the future content of the legal ideology of Ukraine, it must clearly be a liberal direction, but with the existing mechanism of containment and counterbalance, since our state has not yet lost its totalitarian legal heritage.
This is logical for several reasons. First, as noted by the ideologists of liberalism, the state not only remains an arbiter, but also the strongest player, who for the sake of certainty as a result rewrites the rules of the game during the action. Secondly, the lack of clear political regulators can lead to the usurpation of power and the adoption of undemocratic decisions that can corroborate our history. However, such regulators should be weighed and flexible enough.
Achieving harmony between the observance of social rights and freedoms and economic prosperity can not violate the principles of the rule of law and legality.
Ukrainian legal ideology should not be based on the idea of a social and political split, the opposition of one social group to another. On the contrary, the theory should be aimed at uniting the country, achieving its moral and spiritual unity, the necessary political consolidation and civic agreement, which in practical terms involves planning and conducting a series of concerted actions of political, cultural, economic and informational character. In addition, legal ideology should be sufficiently open to take into account and perceive the historical experience of the Ukrainian nation. The legal ideology should include all the constructive and useful for Ukraine on the theory and practice of the past and present.
Needed is a rational combination of the interests of the individual and society, and not the domination of one over
the other. Full development of the personality, ensuring the harmony of rights and responsibilities must be realized through the integration of man into society, its culture, the involvement of the cultural and intellectual potential of the nation. The concept of the development of Ukrainian culture in the broad sense of the word should be the true basis for state-building in Ukraine.

Key words: legal ideology, theoretical and legal science, state policy, effectiveness of ideology.


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