Дарсанія Л. В. Досвід Сполучних Штатів Америки та Японії щодо визначення ризиків у соціально-трудових відносинах.
У статті проаналізовано позитивний досвід США щодо визначення ризиків у соціально-трудових відносинах. Досліджено специфіку Японії щодо визначення ризиків у соціально-трудових відносинах.
Ключові слова: США, ризик, соціально-трудові відносини, трудові права, працівник.
Darsania L. The experience of the United States and Japan in identifying risks in social and labor relations.
In the article the positive US experience in identifying risks in social and labor relations is analyzed. The specifics of Japan in identifying risks in social and labor relations are explored. Realization of the US experience in domestic conditions is seen in two directions:
1) within the limits of a particular enterprise, to determine the risks in social and labor relations with the help of certified auditors, including those entitled to use the International Safety Rating System;
2) on the basis of the International Safety Rating System, make changes to the national occupational safety management system – the Ukrainian safety assessment system should be supplemented by the provisions according to which the risk assessment will be based on familiarization with the enterprise, documentation of occupational safety, the creation of control worksheets for audit work, etc. competent persons, confirmation of the information obtained by checking the documents, records, review of workplaces, interviews with employees, audits of workplaces, etc.
The study of Japan’s experience in identifying risks in socio-labor relations is appropriate given that this state traditionally significantly differs from the European states in the context of approaches to regulation of various spheres.
Therefore, on an example of this country it is possible to analyze experience that is problematic for implementation in domestic conditions, but which will be different from the conclusions we have made in this paper.
In general, summing up the study of the Japanese experience, we note the lack of specific features compared with the European powers. Regulation of the definition of risks in social and labor relations is also governed by laws and standards. Practical incarnation takes place on two levels - state and local. Regarding the local level, the employer’s powers in the area of risk identification are identical to those established in European law. The experience of setting up special services that provides services for evaluating the working environment draws attention, but similar certified actors are also active in European countries. Therefore, based on the study of the Japanese experience in determining the risks in social and labor relations, we conclude that there are no specific provisions that would be appropriate to implement in domestic conditions. The determination of the risks in social and labor relations in a given state is regulated at a high level, the subjects are given clear authority, but, apart from proper ordering and systematization, none of the provisions will have a significant impact on the Ukrainian system.
Key words: US, risk, social-labor relations, labor rights, employee.
Дашутін І. В. Сутність правового забезпечення реалізації законності у трудових відносинах.
У статті визначено поняття реалізації законності у трудових правовідносинах. Охарактеризовано сутність правового забезпечення реалізації законності у трудових відносинах.
Ключові слова: правове забезпечення, законність, трудові відносини, праця, працівник.
Dashutin I. The essence of the legal framework for the implementation of legality in labor relations.
In the article defined the concept of realization of legality in labor legal relations. The essence of legal support for the implementation of legality in labor relations is characterized.
It is substantiated that the realization of legality in labor relations is a mechanism and a process that functions within the framework of ensuring legality and consists in the introduction of the rules aimed at establishing a regime in which the violation of the provisions of labor legislation is minimized, as well as the application of the relevant
rights and responsibilities in this area.
Control bodies as entities of law enforcement perform their functions by conducting labor law compliance inspections.
According to their results, appropriate sanctions are applied to business entities and violations of labor legislation are required from employers-offenders. As of today, such supervisory bodies are the State Service for Labor and the State Fiscal Service. The relevant authorities have the widest range of powers to impose sanctions for breach of labor legislation.
Not less important subjects of the lawfulness are courts of general jurisdiction. The latter consider individual disputes of the parties to labor relations and in the event of a violation of labor rights and, accordingly, labor laws, take decisions that protect and restore the violated right. In addition, the guilty party shall reimburse the costs incurred by the other party and compensate for the material and non-pecuniary damage suffered by the injured party. Therefore, the court is one of the most important elements as a mechanism for the implementation of legality in labor relations, and the corresponding wider mechanism of ensuring legality.
The peculiarities of the legal provision of the implementation of legality in labor relations are as follows: 1) is realized both by state authorities and by actors – participants in labor relations; 2) the most interested subject in the implementation of legality is a hired employee; 3) hired workers can realize the legality of labor relations both independently and through trade union organizations, which among the subjects of labor relations have the largest set of instruments-powers; 4) the legal framework for the implementation of legality is regulated both in the Labor Code
(in the future TK) and in other legislative acts of labor legislation, as well as other legislative acts; 5) the legal framework for the implementation of legality in labor relations can be characterized as due.
It is concluded that the realization of legality is an important theoretical and practical category, which reveals the essence and content of the corresponding legal regulation of labor legal relations. The latter discloses the means available to the subjects of labor relations and state authorities regarding the requirement and actual implementation of legally significant actions aimed at bringing the public relations into conformity with the formally established actions.
Key words: legal support, legality, labor relations, labor, employee.
Демченко П. С. Кібернетична безпека як важлива складова забезпечення інформаційного суверенітету України.
У статті розкривається поняття та сутність кібернетичної безпеки як новітньої складової національної безпеки. Окреслюються основні причини необхідності її забезпечення в Україні відповідно до наявних загроз, які на сьогодні мають місце в світі. Проаналізовано низку вітчизняних нормативно-правових актів, які є законодавчою базою забезпечення кібернетичної безпеки України. Для порівняльної характеристики представлений короткий правовий аналіз реалізації забезпечення кібернетичної безпеки у ФРН. Враховуючи відповідні результати правового аналізу та порівняльно-правової характеристики України та ФРН, необхідно стверджувати про необхідність подальшого вдосконалення правового регулювання кібернетичної безпеки як новітньої складової національної безпеки, що забезпечує інформаційний суверенітет України в кібернетичному просторі.
Ключові слова: кібернетична безпека, національна безпека, критична інфраструктура, виклики і загрози стратегії кібернетичної безпеки України.
Demchenko P. Cybernetic safety as a constituent of providing of informative sovereignty of Ukraine is important.
The article reveals the concept and essence of cybernetic security as the newest component of national security.
The main reasons for the need to provide it in Ukraine are outlined in accordance with the existing threats that are taking place in the world at the moment, among which are argession of Russian Federation on Ukraine, rising of cyberterrorism and using of cyberspace as new battlefield in XXI century. All this underlines the importance of the need for legal research on this topicA number of ukrainian normative legal acts, which are the legislative basis for ensuring cybernetic security of Ukraine, are analyzed. For comparative characteristics, a legal analysis of the implementation of the provision of cybernetic security in the Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Based on the results of the legal analysis of Ukrainian legislation and comparative legal characteristics of Ukraine and the Federal Republic of Germany can be argued about the need for further improvement of legal regulation of cyber security as the newest of the national security Institute in Ukraine, which is aimed at providing information sovereignty of Ukraine in cyberspace.
It must specify that the challenges and threats that arise with the development of modern technology requires from the legislator for the development of flexible strategies and legislation that could timely immediately stop any negative impact on critical cyberinfrastructure of Ukraine, which in turn will provide stability in the functioning of the Ukrainian state. In this aspect explains the necessity of further study of cyber security as a promising direction in the technical field, but also from the point of view of juridical Sciences.
Key words: сybersecurity, national security, critical infrastructure, challenges and threats for the strategy of cybersecurity of Ukraine.
Денега О. П. Теоретична характеристика держави як суб’єкта права соціального забезпечення.
У статті визначено поняття держави як суб’єкта права соціального забезпечення. Досліджено його сутність та значення. Охарактеризовано ознаки держави як суб’єкта права соціального забезпечення.
Ключові слова: держава, суб’єкт права, соціальне забезпечення, соціальне законодавство, суспільство.
Denega O. Theoretical characteristic of the state as a subject of social security law.
In the article the concept of the state as a subject of social security law is defined. The essence and meaning of it are investigated. Characterized by the features of the state as the subject of social security law.
It is summarized that the state as a subject of the right to social security is a special sovereign territorial form of grouping of a society that carries out the tasks of social security and which, in the right of social security, is a subject, possessing subjective legal rights and obligations and branch legal status, carries out purposeful activity, is capable of producing, expressing and fulfilling the will and having the opportunity to participate in the legal relationships of social security.
The sign of co-ordination is the first of the distinguished competence attributes, which consists in the participation of the state in the right of social security by ensuring the coordination of an extensive system of bodies set up by the state to carry out its functions. This characteristic is similar in nature to a personified person, because it also consists in the fact that the rights and obligations of the state as a subject of social security rights are distributed between the system of bodies specially created for the performance of its functions. The difference lies in the fact that the state not only distributes functions between the authorities, but coordinates their joint activities in such a way that each of them was a specific element of one system. It is a sign of coordination that allows us to consider the state as the subject of social security law in the unity of its elemental composition.
The sign of the security of the state as the subject of social security law is that, if there are grounds, the state as a subject of social security law provides social welfare services to the population that are in accordance with legally established forms. Isolation of this feature is carried out on the basis of the analyzed classification of the subjects of the right of social security. We have established that the state belongs to a group of entities providing various types of social security, which constitute a complex of material, legal, medical, rehabilitation and other measures for individuals
in difficult living conditions and in need of out-of-pocket help.
It is summarized that unlike other parties to the law, the state is a complex subject, whose structure is shaped by a system of specially created bodies, between which its competence is distributed. This is precisely why we can explain the low level of attention to this issue in the scientific literature, because domestic scientists mainly consider each element of the system of state social security as an independent unit.
Key words: state, subject of law, social security, social legislation, society.
Зубрицький М. І. Зміст та види загальних принципів юридичної відповідальності державних службовців.
У статті визначено види загальних принципів юридичної відповідальності державних службовців. Розкрито зміст кожної з них.
Ключові слова: принцип, юридична відповідальність, державна служба, державні службовці, правопорушення.
Zubrytsky M. Content and types of general principles of legal responsibility of civil servants.
In the article the types of general principles of legal responsibility of civil servants are defined. The content of each of them is revealed.
Legal liability, including legal liability of civil servants, is based on certain general principles and principles that guide its operation and ensure maximum efficiency. Principles of legal responsibility of civil servants provide an opportunity to bring a perpetrator in a qualitative manner to legal liability, without violating the rights and freedoms defined by the Constitution of Ukraine.
Legality means the existence of legal norms that determine for certain civil servants certain offenses for which a civil servant will be held liable. In addition, the principle of legality implies that civil servants will be brought to legal liability only in accordance with the established procedure and with observance of certain rules and norms of this process.
The application of the principle of fairness of legal liability implies an equivalent reaction of the state to a committed civil servant offense and the use of state-power coercive measures that are in accordance with public harm or the danger caused by the violation of law.
The principle of individualization allows us to consider all aspects of the offense committed by a public servant and to establish the most optimal sanction that will enable the effective implementation of the educational and restorative functions of legal liability.
In the process of implementing the legal responsibility of civil servants, it is important to determine the appropriate principles that will act as a fundamental support for the mechanism of the negative reaction of the state to an illegal act committed by a public servant and the use of measures of a coercive nature to the latter.
Violation of the established rule of law by the civil servant is characterized by many aspects that must necessarily be taken into account when applying sanctions against him. However, it is important to foresee the possible consequences of their use and the impact on the functioning of the r elevant state or local government body.
The principle of one-time use of legal liability, in particular regarding civil servants, it means the application to the offender of the appropriate measure of coercive influence only once, without using it or similar in the future.
Key words: principle, legal responsibility, public service, civil servants, offenses.