Анотації до статей 2018

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УДК 349.41

Кулинич П. Ф. Земельне рейдерство як негативне правове явище: доктринальний аналіз та шляхи подолання.
Аналізуються причини та юридична природа земельного (аграрного) рейдерства як негативного правового явища, яке набуло масового характеру. Доводиться, що земельне (аграрне) рейдерство являє собою протиправне захоплення рейдерами чужої землі та іншого майна з використанням неправомірно оформленого у Державному реєстрі прав запису про право на землю тощо для надання видимості правомірності незаконно відібраному у законного володільця та присвоєному рейдером права на землю та інше майно. Акцентується увага на тому, що земельне (аграрне) рейдерство уможливлене роз’єднаністю відомостей про право на землю у Державному реєстрі прав та Державному земельному кадастрі. Аналізуються інституційне і функціональне
їх об’єднання. Доводиться, що з метою подолання земельного (аграрного) рейдерства доцільним є функціональне об’єднання відомостей про права на землю, яке полягає у виокремленні з державного земельного кадастру функції державної реєстрації земельних ділянок та покладення її здійснення на посадових та інших осіб, які здійснюють державну реєстрацію прав.

Ключові слова: земля, право на землю, рейдер, захоплення земель, правова протидія рейдерству, об’єднання реєстру прав і земельного кадастру.

Kulinich P. Land grabbing as a negative legal phenomenon: doctrine analysis and ways of overcoming.
Land grabbing as a negative legal phenomenon in Ukraine is being analyzed. It is proved that land (or agrarian) grabbing can be defined as permanent or temporary illegal capture of land and other agricultural facilities used by agrarian commodity producers as well as agricultural enterprises and family farms at all and depriving them with rights to land, other immovable properties and yields which is based on loopholes and other shortcomings of legislation of Ukraine and followed by granting of legacy visibility to such illegal actions. Essence of the land (agrarian) grabbing consists in the next illegal activity. A certain group of people, exactly knowing that particular agricultural lot of land is aquired by other person in a lease or even in ownership for conducting of commodity agricultural production (farming) according to legislation which was effective in previous years, and/or using the lacks of current legislation of Ukraine regarding land cadaster and registration of land rights, secretly reregister right on such lot of land on the name of legal entity created by a grabber of land, and then after such reregistration physically capture the land with the harvest of agricultural cultures on it and even agricultural enterprise (farm) at all. Thus, the land
(agrarian) grabbing transfer law into antilaw.
Usually land grabbers attack family farms, other small and medium size agricultural commodity producers that are not able to hire armed guard or use lagal services of skilled a dvocates.
By the aim of unlawful encroachment, the land (agrarian) grabbing can be divided into three kinds: 1) grabbing of harvest only; 2) grabbing of land; 3) grabbing of land, harvest on it and an agricultural enterprise (farm) at all.
According to land law doctrine, any right to land plot consists of three inseparable elements, namely: a land plot as an object of land right, an owner or user of land plot as a subject of land right and the type of land right (ownership, lease, permanent use right and so on). So, correlation between the is as follows: if one element of land right stops to exist – the right to particular land plot stops to exist too. Thus, land (agrarian) grabbing became possible because in the process of state registration of ownership right to newly allocated land plot one element of any land rights which
is a land plot is being registered in State land cadaster, and other elements of land rights are being registered in State immovable property registry. As records about lot lands and their owners (users) in these registers do not coincide, grabbers of land use these divergences for misappropriation of stranger land.
In our view, in Ukraine the problem of disconnection of data about land and its owners (users), that is contained in both State land cadastre and State register of rights may be solved by two ways: by way of institutional unification or by way of functional unification. The institutional unification of the State land cadastre and State register of rights to immovable property envisages the transformation of both of them into one data base regarding land and any rights to any immovable property which would be running by one institution (officials). However, we believe that
in Ukraine the functional unification is more realistic and more reasonable. For this purpose the subfunction of state registration of land plots should be exempted from the latter and included into mechanism of state registration of rights to immovable property. In such case running of State land cadaster would not include registration of land plot. Any land plot would be registered at the moment of registration of proper right to the land plot. As a result, the functional unification of registration of lands and rights to lands in one data base would close the main loophole in Ukrainian legislation and which land grabbers use for illegal capture of land and other property of family farmers, other small and medium size agricultural producers in Ukraine.

Key words: land, rights to land, grabbing of land, legal counteraction to grabbing of land, unification f state registry of rights and land cadaster.

УДК 340.1

Бобровник С. В. Право та правосвідомість: взаємозалежність.
Досліджено основні аспекти взаємозалежності права та правосвідомості. З’ясовано існуючі точки зору вчених на досліджувану проблему. Виокремлено спільні, відмінні риси права і правосвідомості, їх суперечності. Проаналізовано роль правопізнання для формування правосвідомості.

Ключові слова: право, правопізнання, правосвідомість, професійна правосвідомість, протиріччя.

Bobrovnik S. Law and legal awareness: interdependence.
The main aspects of the interdependence of law and legal consciousness are investigated. The existing points of view of scientists on the investigated problem are found out. The common, distinctive features of law and legal consciousness, their contradictions are singled out. The role of jurisprudence for the formation of legal consciousness is analyzed.
Formulation of the problem. The process of regulatory influence of law depends on many factors. Some of them are objective in nature and are associated with social, political, economic, ideological processes, not depending on the will and desire of specific subjects. Others have a subjective significance, since they are dependent on the consciousness and level of the legal culture of the subject. Of particular significance for law is the legal consciousness, because it is she who has successfully evaluated G.V.F. Hegel is a means of assessing the law and enforcing the law that is the product of human activity. The urgency of the analysis of the interaction of law and justice is to establish the main aspects and ways of influencing the right to legal consciousness of the subjects of social relations, as well as the reciprocal influence of legal awareness on the process of law-making, law enforcement, law enforcement and the restoration of rights.
Degree of research of the problem. In contemporary scientific literature, the issue of the integrated study of the role of legal knowledge in the formation of legal awareness is paid insignificant attention. Existing scientific publications emphasize the characterization of law or the very phenomenon of legal consciousness through its conceptual and structural aspects. Ideas that are substantiated by P. Baranov, I. Zelenko, V. Ilyin, V. Korobka, O. Lukashova, M. Matusov, P. Novgorodtsev, M. Reisner S. Slika, V. Temchenko, V. Farber on the legal and philosophical understanding of law and justice on the categorical level. Some aspects of the interaction of law and justice are researched in the works T. Demchenko, E. Zhukov,
O. Petrishina, S. Hopts Without diminishing the significance of the ideas of our scientists, we still need to note the absence of special scientific works, the purpose of which would be to analyze the interaction and interaction of law and legal consciousness.
The purpose of the article is a theoretical and legal analysis of mutual influence and interdependence of law and legal consciousness.
The problem of legal consciousness arose with the appearance of the very phenomenon of law in its formal legal sense. Proceeding from this, the phenomenon of legal consciousness in legal science is considered in two aspects: 1) as a specific process of knowledge of law, its essence; substantiation of the leading principles and features; 2) as a result of cognitive activity, knowledge of the right obtained through cognition.
A broad approach involves both aspects and assumes that legal awareness is a process of awareness and application of law; separate elements of cognitive-legal activity (the perception of legal phenomena, the idea of legal phenomena and law in general, the concept of law), as well as the totality (or system) of interpreted legal knowledge obtained as a result of cognitive-legal activity.
Separate characteristics require the idea of the primacy of law in relation to legal consciousness. This theory is based on two ideas. First, the inclusion in the legal consciousness of a set of rational-sensory representations and knowledge of the existence of legal reality. And, secondly, the introduction to the content of the legal consciousness of the objective basis, which is the result of reflecting the legal reality of the mind as a peacemaking phenomenon.
Thus, in our opinion, the phenomenon of «right» and «legal consciousness» are interrelated. They exist and develop together, mutually supporting and complementing each other through legal knowledge. Legal recognition, in turn, includes the process of influencing the right to a judge’s professional legal consciousness. Revealing the essence of the concept of legal knowledge, one can speak of an invisible, but a reciprocal link between the right and the person, where, on the one hand, the right affects the person acting on its object, and on the other – the person perceives and recognizes this influence of law.
Thus, the role of legal knowledge in shaping the professional justice of a judge is to exercise influence on professional legal consciousness, since it is the most important source of its formation, transformation and development. But the content, the direction of this influence is not clear and depends on the quality of legislation, its compliance with real needs. Formation of legal consciousness also occurs through the legal influence on the consciousness of the person.
Legal influence has the following forms: information action law, the orientation of the influence of law and its special legal effect.

Key words: law, jurisprudence, legal consciousness, professional legal consciousness, contradictions.

УДК 340.114.3-044.922

Андрусишин Б. І., Токарчук О. В. Не право сили, a сила права (регулятивна функція права трансформаційного періоду).
У статті розглянуто проблему функціонування та реформування правової системи України в умовах трансформації. У кожній країні діють свої правові звичаї, традиції, законодавство, юрисдикційні органи, сформувалися особливості правової культури, що є одним із головних факторів забезпечення у суспільстві дії правових норм. Зазначено, що в умовах реформування держави існує запит на справедливі закони та незалежні суди задля нормального функціонування суспільства.

Ключові слова: право, теорія права, філософія права, трансформаційне суспільство, реформа правосуддя, нормативно-правовий акт.

Andrusishin B., Tokarchuk O. Not the right of force, but force it is right (regulatory function of the right of the transformational period).
In article the problem of functioning and reforming of legal system of Ukraine in the conditions of transformation is considered. The legal customs, traditions, the legislation, jurisdictional bodies work in each country, features of legal culture which acts as one of the main factors of providing in the society of action of precepts of law were created. It is noted that in the conditions of reforming of the state there is a request for fair laws and independent courts for normal functioning of society.
The present stage of development of the Ukrainian state and society can be characterized as transformation of which the aspiration to build the constitutional state, civil society and the effective mechanism of legal support of the rights and freedoms of the person and citizen is characteristic. The theory of the law, legal philosophy speaks about the direction of the law for stable functioning of society, providing to people of worthy living conditions. Also ways of achievement of the chosen purpose, among other things – creation of official system of coercion, providing conditions for a private occupation of people when the state becomes the guarantor of observance of the relevant laws are specified. Violating the standard rules of coexistence, people can be exposed to punishments.
The relevance of increase in efficiency of legal support of mechanisms of regulation of the public relations by improvement of the legislation of Ukraine increases. In realization of this task the main role is assigned to the state represented by appropriate authorities. At the same time, separate cases of authority misuse by public officials meet that is nothing else as legal nihilism – the phenomenon which has nothing in common with the constitutional state. Formation of legal culture of all participants of society, education of a habit to observe the law has to become a priority. Special attention is paid to reform of court; judges are a justice embodiment in society and have to possess high level of confidence.
The legal culture of the population acts as one of the main factors of providing in the society of action of precepts of law interferes with manifestation of asocial behavior. The adopted laws can be from the point of view of law the best, perfect, but if not to carry out them, then in the country there will be a disorder.
Before society it is worth – optimizing a common goal the right in three main directions: to prepare and adopt perfect legal laws; to raise the legal culture of citizens, the population in general; to involve all mechanisms of regulation of the public relations where along with the right the morals, religion, etc. have to work.

Key words: law, theory of the right, legal philosophy, transformational society, justice reform, normative legal act.

УДК 342.722.1

Батанов О. В. Муніципально-правові проблеми реалізації принципу рівності та заборони дискримінації у вимірі правової аналітики (на прикладі ЛГБТ-спільноти).
Статтю присвячено дослідженню процесу становлення та реалізації прав осіб, що належать до ЛГБТ-спільноти у контексті місцевого самоврядування та функціонування територіальних громад. Досліджуються проблеми ідентичності як самовизначення, самоідентифікації особи як представника певної соціальної групи в контексті прав осіб, що належать до ЛГБТ-спільноти. Обґрунтовується, що сама по собі ідентичність не може бути підставою дискримінації. Акцентується увага на важливості безпосередньої реалізації принципу поваги
до ідентичності особи, протидії та запобігання маргіналізації та демонізації меншин. Зазначається, що акти з прав людини міжнародного значення і законодавства переважної більшості країн світу, зокрема й України, ґрунтуються на принципах справедливості, рівності та недискримінації. Автор
обґрунтовує положення про те, що відсутність діючого механізму захисту прав людини і заборони дискримінації за ознакою сексуальної орієнтації як на національному, так і на муніципальному рівнях неминуче суперечитиме ідеям правової соціальної держави та громадянського суспільства. У зв’язку з цим робиться висновок, що розробка ефективного муніципального механізму захисту прав людини і заборона дискримінації за ознакою сексуальної орієнтації є нагальними завданнями сьогодення.

Ключові слова: місцеве самоврядування, сексуальна орієнтація, права людини, законодавство, дискримінація, демократизація, міжнародні стандарти прав людини.

Batanov O. Municipal legal problems of the implementation of the principle of equality and the prohibition of discrimination in the measurement of legal analytics (on the example of the LGBT community).
The article is devoted to the study of the process of formation and realization of the rights of persons belonging to the LGBT community in the context of local self-government and the functioning of territorial communities. In the article is investigated the concept and nature of identity as self-determination, self-identification as a representative of a particular social group in the context of the human rights for LGBT. It is proved that the identity itself cannot be a basis for discrimination. Attention is drawn to the importance of the immediate implementation of the principle of respect for the identity of the person, combating and prevention of marginalization and demonization of minorities.
The entire scope of rights and freedoms, provided by both international human rights documents and modern constitutions, was formed as a result of the evolution of ideas about the natural rights, views on the legal equality of people, historical formation of certain standards that became the norm of a modern democratic society. Due to the
dynamic nature of human rights and freedoms, this process is being continued today. The modern conditions of globalization and multiculturalism contribute to the expansion of the human rights catalog enshrined in international human rights documents and the formation of new generations of human rights, the list of which includes the right to protection against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and sexual identity, the right to sexual self-determination, the right to sexual orientation, the right to sexual identity etc.
It is reported that acts on human rights of international importance and legislation of the most countries of the world, including Ukraine, are based on the principles of justice, equality and non-discrimination. The author justifies the position that the lack of effective mechanism of protection of human rights and non-discrimination based on sexual orientation both at national and municipal levels inevitably conflict with the ideas of social legal state and civil society.
In this regard, it is concluded that the development of an effective human rights protection municipal mechanism and prohibition of discrimination based on sexual orientation are a significant target to achieve.
It is concluded that, despite the legislative consolidation of the principles of equality and non-discrimination, a real effective mechanism of legal protection of human rights in the aspect of sexual orientation is rather a prospect for the future.
In this regard, for the development of this model and the actual implementation of the principle on equality, it is necessary not only to have a law establishing a wide list of human rights and freedoms without setting privileges or restrictions on the basis of sexual orientation, but also to ensure that the practical realization of the positive responsibilities of the state in the field preventing and combating discrimination and ensuring the restoration of violated rights are being implemented, as well as avoiding interference when it comes to registration of civic associations representing sexual minorities.

Key words: local self-government, sexual orientation, human rights, legislation, discrimination, democratization, international human rights standards.


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