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РУБРИКА
«ПРАВОВА АНАЛІТИКА: ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ЗАСАДИ»

УДК 340.12

Богініч О. Л. Правова аналітика – сучасний дискурс.
У статті розглядається проблематика аналітичної юриспруденції та правової аналітики. Здійснюється історичний екскурс щодо витоків аналітичної юриспруденції, розкривається її генетичний зв’язок з аналітичною філософією. Зазначаються найбільш відомі постаті, які зробили свій внесок у розвиток цієї теорії, зокрема Дж. Остін та Г. Харт. Розкривається взаємозв’язок між аналітичною юриспруденцією та правовою аналітикою.
Якщо аналітична юриспруденція вивчає мову права, то правова аналітика досліджує і передумови появи правових понять – матеріальні та ідеальні правовідносини. У зв’язку з цим наголошується на евристичному потенціалі правової аналітики. Наводяться приклади порушення вимог логіки щодо відповідності змісту суспільних відносин їх правовій формі. Зокрема, на досвіді правового регулювання відносин власності у колишніх соціалістичних країнах продемонстровано недоліки відповідної правової форми, наголошується, що в цьому разі мало місце гальмування економічних відносин з боку правової системи. В аналогічному напрямі аналізуються правові форми опосередкування економічних відносин у перші роки незалежності України. Встановлено, що у відповідному правовому регулюванні мало місце забігання наперед, викликане неврахуванням стану суспільства, яке було дезорієнтоване попереднім патерналізмом соціалістичної держави. Пропонуються заходи поліпшення правового регулювання політико-правових, економічних відносин.

Ключові слова: аналітична юриспруденція, правова аналітика, право, правовідносини, правова форма, правовий зміст.

Boginich O. Legal analyst-modern discourse.
The article deals with the problems of analytical jurisprudence and legal analysis. The historical excursion about the origins of analytical law is carried out, its genetic connection with analytical philosophy is revealed. The most famous figures that have contributed to the development of this theory are indicated. Among the last J. Austin and G. Hart.
The interrelation between analytical jurisprudence and legal Analytics is revealed. If analytical law studies the language of law, the legal analyst examines the prerequisites for the emergence of legal concepts – material and ideal legal relations. In this regard, it is noted on the heuristic potential of legal analysis. Examples of violation of the requirements of logic regarding the compliance of the content of public relations with their legal form are given. In particular, the experience of legal regulation of property relations in the former socialist countries demonstrated the shortcomings of the relevant legal form, it is noted that in this case there was a slowdown in economic relations on the part of the legal system.
In a similar vein, the legal forms of mediation of economic relations in the first years of independence of Ukraine are analyzed. It is established that in the relevant legal regulation there was a race forward caused by the neglect of the state of society, which was disoriented by the previous paternalism of the socialist Modern legal forms of political relations are also analyzed. It is argued about the imperfection of the legal regulation of certain political institutions. It is primarily about the institution of control over power by civil society. As you know, such control is exercised by voters during the voting in the next election, voting for those who justified their trust and denying those who violated their promises. In the context of the structure of civil society, which also implies the presence of a developed party system, established economic ties, this mechanism works, although periodically and is subject to some criticism, as a rule, by opposition forces. In the absence of such conditions, the above-mentioned mechanism of control over the government, as the experience of Ukraine shows, is not enough. It is concluded that the legal forms still do not correspond to the content, including political relations.
The important role of legal Analytics in the performance of such its function as forecasting the development of events after the occurrence of a legal fact is noted. For example, in the legislative activities to implement this functionality, the legal analysts would reduce the annoying errors that allow Ukrainian lawmakers when making laws. Based on this, the appropriate measures to improve the legal regulation of political, legal and economic relations are proposed.
As a result, it is concluded that ignoring the requirements of legal analysis in any legal field leads to significant shortcomings in the functioning of the entire legal mechanism, and therefore on the agenda the consolidation of this method of knowledge and transformation of reality as an indispensable element of the activities of both the lawyer-scientist and the practice of the lawyer.

Key words: analytical law, legal analysis, law, legal relations, legal form and legal content.

УДК 340.115

Бондарук Т. І. Аналітика як методологічна основа історико-правових досліджень.
Розглядається аналітична складова історико-правового дослідження. Доводиться, що його методологічною основою є аналітика на рівні побудови теорій та концепцій. При цьому сутність аналітичних практик виявляється у процесі методологування – визначенні підходів, принципів, методів пізнання історико-правової реальності на підставі їх якомога вичерпнішого дослідницького реєстру, складеного з урахуванням сучасних науково-пізнавальних практик, що має забезпечувати доведення дослідження до максимально можливого рівня на певному етапі науки.

Ключові слова: методологія історії права, аналітика, історико-правове дослідження, правознавство.

Bondaruk T. Analytics as a methodological basis of historical and legal research.
The development of the methodology of legal science is one of the most important tasks of Ukrainian legal science.
A pluralistic approach to law and to its history also determines methodological pluralism as a set of independent methods.
Currently, the historical and legal science is actively seeking ways to modernize the methodological instruments and overcome the methodological gaps discovered during the postmodern discourse.
At the same time, there are urgent problems concerning the establishment of the idea of the level of methodology, the development of various scientifically grounded models (structuring) of coexistence/complementarity/harmonization of different methodological levels; attraction and legalization, or rather, integration into the historical and legal science, methods of other sciences, both humanitarian and natural (in particular, biology), etc.
Their solution is directly related to the implementation of analytical activities as a set of appropriate procedures, methods and techniques that enables the acquisition of true knowledge and is a guarantee of the effectiveness of scientific legal and, in particular, historical and legal studies.
The basis for the article was the development of O. Skakun, who explores the systematic and multifactor of the modern methodology of legal science, I. Kovalchenko, who, under the pluralistic approach to history, understood the synthesis of various theories of the historical process; M. Kostytsky, who notes that the analytical approach can be considered by the historical and legal phenomena through the prism of the triune structure of the general, particular, unitary; M. Kellman, who emphasizes the significance of the methodology of jurisprudence in identifying new patterns of development of law and other legal phenomena, the formation of an effective system of legal knowledge as well as the works of V. Kirichenko, L. Savvenok and others. The purpose of the article is to find out the content and essence
of the analytical component of historical and legal research as its methodological basis, outline the range of analytical practices in the knowledge of historical and legal reality.
I. Kovalchenko distinguished three types of levels of cognition and relevant theories: comparative, analytical, synthetic. The basic, or the required levels are the first two. The third is the goal, but given the specifics of the object and subject of historical and legal research, it is not always achievable.Each of these levels determines its own set of analytical procedures and practices that have their own peculiarities.
According to the above it is obvious that the history of law – mostly empirical science, has the main task of creating as much as possible a verbal image of the object under study. Here is an important use of the descriptive method, which is clearly analytic in nature.
Its main components are such as basic techniques as observation (in historical and legal science are limited), verbalization (finding the most precise verbal expressions of the object being studied); generalization and classification; temporal-spatial binding (establishment of the time and spatial framework of the study); interpretation (content discovery) (N. Krestovska).
It is worth noting that the historical and legal narrative, «sifted» through the sieve of legal thinking, an integral part of which is the analytical component) – the primary and necessary cell of historical and legal knowle dge.
From the empiric (description) to theoretical knowledge, the cognitive method of interpretation (explanation), which is at the same time the second level of cognition or its first theoretical stage, serves as the source Such methods as interpretation-historical method, method of formal-logical, historical and legal modeling of past
legal acts, events, processes are the main in historical and le gal study (O. Skakun).
Thus, the constructed methodological hierarchy can testify to the perception of the ideas of the critical philosophy of history (its analytical wing), which deals with four main problems: 1) history as a specific branch of knowledge; 2) truth and fact in history; 3) historical objectivity and 4) historical explanation (V. Wolsch).
In particular, the historical explanation occurs in the method: causal, through law, genetic, structural, functional (I. Kovalchenko). There are few important factors of constructing the theory (on the way from the concrete to the general): the nomination of the idea as the core of theoretical knowledge and the implementation of categorical
synthesis.
In modern historical and legal science, a number of important methodological determinants of this «reverse» movement can be identified. Among them, the idea of the historical-legal process as a subjective-objective, both socially and culturally predetermined, as an integral part of the civilization and cultural development of society, with the active role of its subjects, etc.
At the same time understanding in the context of the knowledge of historical and legal reality requires a number of accepted postmodern challenges.
Analytical comprehension needs a historical and legal reality in view of the establishment of the concept of «integrity» or «totality» in post-humanitarian clarification in humanitarian terms, which is the integrity of human and non-human factors.
Additional, first of allanalytical reflectionsrequire a proper postmodern theory (in particular deconstruction, constructivism, narrative, texturalism), the cognitive capabilities of which are able, in particular, to change their perspectives and new accents and contexts to advance in the dev elopment of historical and legal knowledge.
The foregoing gives grounds to assert that the analytical component is present at all stages of historical and legal research. At the same time its methodological basis of analytics is primarily at the level of constructing theories and concepts.
Thus the essence of analytical practices is manifested throughout the process of methodology – the definition of approaches, principles, methods of knowledge of historical and legal reality on the basis of their as comprehensive research register drawn up in the light of modern scientific and cognitive practices, which must ensure that the research is brought to the maximum possible level at this stage of scien ce.

Key words: methodology of the history of law, analytics, historical and l egal research, jurisprudence.

УДК 340.1

Васецький В. Ю. Витоки природного права: історичний аспект.
У сучасному світі особливого значення набуває природне право як таке, що належить людині від народження, яке закладене в самій сутності існування людини і є однаковим для всіх. Мета дослідження полягає в аналізі історичних аспектів витоків та джерел природного права, що має широке, універсальне значення і посилюється у сучасному світі. Проаналізовано розвиток уявлення про зміст права в Стародавньому світі, де у ранньокласовому суспільстві починають розмежовувати природні і людські закони. Подано історичний аспект розвитку природного права в Античному світі, у Римській республіки, аналізуються правові уявлення класиків римської юриспруденції. Аналізується відновлення вчення про природне право у період Відродження і Нового часу, а також розвиток теорії природного права в класичній німецькій філософії. Робиться висновок про актуальність на сучасному етапі питання витоків і джерел природного права.

Ключові слова: природне право, витоки та джерела права, історичний аспект.

Vasetsky V. Origins of natural law: the historical aspect.
Changes in the world and modern society, which took place in the second half of XX – at the beginning of the XXI century and continue today, necessarily led to increased attention to the comprehension of common views on law, first of all, to understanding the laws of human existence through the prism of law. The development of the society characterized by qualitatively new state, defined as the globalization process – the global process that integrates national education into a single global system. Globalization involves the convergence of national legal systems, creation of unified legal standards. In this regard, special significance acquires a natural right, such as that belonging to a person from birth, which is laid down in the very essence of the existence of man and is the same for all. In the theory of law, in this aspect, natural law is regarded as theoretical doctrine, according to which the main source of law is nature itself, and not the will of the legislator.
The purpose of the study is to analyze the historical aspects of the origins and sources of natural law, which has a broad, universal significance and is reinforced in the modern world.
The development of the idea of the content of law in the Ancient World, where in the early class society begin to distinguish between natural and human laws, is analyzed. The historical aspect of the development of natural law in the Ancient world, in the Roman Republic, is presented, and the legal representations of the classics of Roman jurisprudence are analyzed.
In the Middle Ages there is a decline in the development of legal thought, the church by its authority suppresses any
opinion that does not coincide with church, religious dogmas. At that time, there were legal schools, representatives of which were dealing with the problems of using in the modern Roman law, referring to natural law, tried to develop a logical system of general legal principles, categories and concepts. Return to the study of Roman law relates primarily to the activities of lawyers at the Bologna University in Italy.
In the paper is analyzed the restoration of the doctrine of natural law during the Renaissance and the New Age, as well as the development of the theory of natural law in classical German philosophy.
The conclusion is made on the relevance at the present stage of the issue of origins and sources of natural law.

Key words: natural law, origins and sources of law, historical aspect.

УДК 342.725

Вітюк Д. Л. Українська мова як гарантія єдності України.
Статтю присвячено проблематиці ролі української мови на новому етапі державотворення в Україні. Висвітлюються деякі теоретичні питання цієї вкрай важливої проблеми, перераховуються причини, які спровокували критичну ситуацію з українською мовою. На основі цього окреслено основні напрями нових ініціатив у галузі підвищення значущості української мови.

Ключові слова: українська мова, державна мова, нація, національна ідея.

Vitiuk D. Ukrainian language as the guarantee of unity of Ukraine.
The article is devoted to the problems of the role of the Ukrainian language at the new stage of state construction in Ukraine. Some theoretical issues of this extremely important problem are highlighted, the reasons, which provoked a critical situation with the Ukrainian language, are indicated. On this basis, the main directions of new initiatives in the field of increasing the importance of the Ukrainian language are determined.

Key words: ukrainian language, state language, nation, national idea.


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