Гетьман-П’ятковська І. А. Правова аналітика взаємодії міжнародного права і моралі: правові аспекти сучасності.
У статті проаналізовано теоретичні і практичні питання взаємодії міжнародного права й моралі. У висновках зазначено, що це два вагомих культурних фактора, які якісно впливають на розвиток міжнародних відносин через діяльність міждержавних урядових та неурядових організації, уможливлюють гідне життя людей у державі та приватній сфері.
Ключові слова: міжнародне право, міжнародна мораль, правові системи, порівняльне правознавство, теорія права.
Hetman-Pyatkovskay I. Legal analysis of the interaction of international law and morality: legal aspects of the modern.
The article analysis the theoretical and practical questions of interaction of international law and morality. The findings marked that these are two significant cultural factors that affect the qualitative development of international relations through the activities of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations that make possible a decent life for citizens in the state and private sphere. Imperative norms of international law, enriched with moral content, simultaneously enrich state-legal systems of countries. The moral value of international law is to become a guarantor of just ensuring the interests of the state and the realization of fundamental human rights and freedoms in each sovereign country. Effective means of international law as a manifestation of the general will of states and international organizations and supranational unions will be on the way to the return and preservation of peace and safe in Ukraine.
Key words: international law, international morality, legal systems, comparative law, theory law.
Глухенький С. О. Роль правового експерименту в сфері підвищення ефективності національного законодавства.
Визначено сутність правового експерименту та розкрито його значення для державно-правового регулювання суспільних процесів. Встановлено мету й основні завдання правового експерименту. Досліджено і визначено змістовне наповнення його функцій та їхнього значення у процесі правового регулювання. Розкрито механізми реалізації правового експерименту як засобу моделювання правової реальності.
Ключові слова: правовий експеримент, правове моделювання, правова гіпотеза, прогностична функція, державно-управлінський вплив.
Glukhenkiy S. The role of legal experiment in the process of increasing the efficiency of national legislation.
There were determined the essence of the legal experiment and its significance for the state and legal regulation of social processes. The aim and the main objectives of the legal experiment were established. The content of its functions and the meanings of the latter in the process of legal regulation were determined. There were disclosed the mechanisms for implementing the legal experiment as a means of modeling legal reality.
Democratization of modern social processes is accompanied by the transformation of the structure and activity of the state mechanism, the ways of state regulation, and, consequently, the legislative provision of social, economic and public-political relations. The intensity of the pace of social development is associated with the constant emergence of new forms and models of relations that require an effective settlement by the state. All this necessitates constant improvement of the legislation. Given that such improvement should be timely, reasonable and appropriate in terms
of all diversity, the state should avoid false steps in the field of organizational and legal provision of social processes that could lead to excessive social tensions and severely weaken the authority of the state. The mentioned causes the necessity of finding effective methods of substantiating and approbating new forms of state-legal regulation in real time. By its very nature, such a tool is a legal experiment. Its application provides an opportunity to test in practice the effectiveness of legislative innovations within a separate social group (more often than the one that is covered outside the administrative-territorial unit).
The relevance of this research direction also lies in the fact that in the modern theoretical science the functional purpose of the legal experiment has not yet been disclosed, while the clarification of its features and tasks will provide an opportunity to expand its scope and increase the relevance of the results of implementation.
The purpose of this article is to determine the main tasks and functions of the legal experiment, which determines its importance and role in improving the effectiveness of national legislation.
Modern reforms cover the main spheres of public relations, but their effectiveness depends on the utilitarian nature of individual models and mechanisms whose testing at the local level within the legal experiment allows simultaneously to reveal shortcomings and analyze the feedback and reaction of society to the changes introduced by the state on the legal regulation of certain processes. Quite often, the need for a legal experiment arises when new forms and models of state regulation of individual processes are introduced. The legislator, justifying the corresponding organizational and legal support, is not able to reliably predict the effects of regulatory influence.
In our opinion, the basic tasks of the legal experiment should be considered as follows: verification of foresight regarding the effectiveness of the legal norm or law-making idea; determination of the level of effectiveness of the regulatory influence of experimental legal norms; determination of the result of state-management influence; establishment of the mechanism of legal implementation; to find out the possible manifestations of the negative influence of the model of legal regulation or legal norms introduced in the legal experiment.
Consequently, the functions of the legal experiment should be considered the main directions and methods of its influence on the social and legal reality, which embodied the social purpose of the legal experiment. Note that in modern theoretical and legal science there is no unity among scientists in relation to the varieties of functions of the legal experiment and their change. Each scientist substantiates his own point of view, linking it not only with the scope of tasks that a legal experiment must perform, but also taking into account the desired result of its practical implementation.
Often, distinguish cognitive (empirical), transformational and predictive functions of the legal experiment. The generalization of the scientific approaches of researchers to the analyzed issue provides an opportunity to argue that, for example, the cognitive (empirical) function is revealed through the study of the mechanism, effects and features of the novel’s actions in the legal regulation of social processes with those that already exist.
The transformational function consists in determining the ways of changing the socio-legal reality by the results of the implementation of the legal experiment. The peculiarity of this function is that transformation takes place at the level of the local environment, revealing the main mechanisms and potential disadvantages of the new method, model or method of state-legal influence on social processes.
The most important function of the legal experiment is undeniably prognostic. Actually to predict the further trend of development of legal regulation and state-management influence on social, economic and public-law processes and apply a legal experiment.
Key words: legal experiment, legal modeling, legal hypothesis, prognostic function, public-management impact.
Головчук В. М. Типові та нетипові норми права: становлення категоріального розуміння.
У статті з’ясовано еволюцію уявлень про правову норму. Узагальнено існуючі у сучасній юридичній науці підходи до характеристики правових норм і таких їх різновидів та типові й нетипові норми. Визначено особливості та значення нетипових норм права.
Ключові слова: норма права, типова норма права, нетипова норма права.
Golovchuk V. Typical and non-standard rules of law: the formation of a categorical understanding.
The article clarifies the evolution of ideas about the legal norm. The approaches to the characterization of legal norms and their varieties and typical and non-standard norms existing in modern legal science are generalized. The peculiarities and meanings of non-standard norms of law are determined.
Formulation of the problem. Society, like any other complex system, can properly function and develop only on the basis of certain rules, on the basis of the choice of one of ma ny possible variants of behavior for a particular subject.
In order to regulate the behavior of people and their associations in society, certain rules of behavior are formed that are oriented towards the achievement of the set goal. Such rules, designed to regulate the life of society, to ensure a certain order and stability, in the literature are called soc ial norms.
It is the notion of «norm» that began to be used in the Ancient period. At each stage of its development, it acquired various meanings. The term «norm» (from the Latin norm – «rule», «model», «guiding principle», «sample», «measure » derived from the ancient Greek and means «high scale», «rule») was first applied to the construction business as «the justice of the square». The term «norm», thus construed in this way, over time spread to the sphere of spiritual and practical activity of man, in particular to the formation of moral and ethical relations. Cicero in the philosophy of law used the term «norm» along with the term «regula», interpreting the «law» by means of a metaphor borrowed from the construction business, that is, as «the scale of law or inj ustice».
A special place in the system of social norms is occupied by legal norms that arose at a certain stage in the development of society. Any social norm, including legal, is a requirement that expresses the same and general scope for measuring socially necessary assessment of the behavior of members of society. The norm is a typical behavior model of a person that distinguishes between the limits of possible and compulsory behavior. The norm, expressing the requirements of socially binding behavior, orientates the activities of the person in the desired direction in accordance
with the interests of society.
The purpose of the article is to analyze the basic scientific approaches to the categorical definition of the law, the characterization of typical and non-standard norms and to clarify the peculiarities of non-standard legal norms.
The first step towards the study of non-standard legal norms is the definition of their concept, the analysis of the sources of this term, its evolution in domestic and foreign science, the study of the influence of the provisions of the general theory of law on the formation of this key concept.
Under the standard rules of law should be understood rules of conduct of the mandatory nature, which regulate the relationship, indicate their participants a clear version of behavior, without giving them the right to choose their own independently of the case. In addition, the standard rule of law enshrines the unequivocal rule of conduct, that is, participants of a particular legal relationship can only behave as stated in the norm. It is these norms that are characterized by imperative nature.
Any state-organized society can not do without the rules of law. But this is a unitary phenomenon of law, so a complete scientific definition of the concept involves finding out the inherent features of the law of specific features (properties). And since non-standard norms are a separate form of legal norms, they are inherent as general features that belong to all types of legal norms, as well as the most important features that are characteristic exclusively for non-typical norms of law, distinguishing them from other types of legal norms, in other words – special signs.
Key words: norm of law, standard norm of law, atypical norm of law.
Данич О. Ф. Взаємозв’язок соціальної функції з іншими внутрішніми функціями держави: сучасні реалії.
У статті досліджуються особливості взаємозв’язку соціальної та інших внутрішніх функцій держави. Серед внутрішніх функцій держави, з якими соціальна функція має найтісніший взаємозв’язок, виділяється економічна, політична, культурна, екологічна та інформаційно-комунікативна функції. Зокрема, наголошується, що взаємодія і взаємозв’язок соціальної та політичної функцій держави проявляється на рівні формування та реалізації її соціальної політики, яку слід вважати складовою державної політики загалом. Підсумовується, що соціальна функція займає особливе місце в системі внутрішніх функцій сучасної держави, які, зі свого боку, тісно пов’язані з соціальним призначенням держави.
Ключові слова: функції держави, соціальна функція держави, економічна функція держави, політична функція держави, культурна функція держави, соціальна політика.
Danich O. The relationship between the social function and other internal functions of the state: contemporary realities.
The article investigates the relationship between the social function and other internal functions of the state. Among the internal functions of the state, with which social function has the closest relationship, allocated economic, political, cultural, environmental and informative-and- communicational functions.
Social function of the state in its semantic saturation is closely linked with economic function of the state, from which at the appropriate stage of social development it evolved into an independent function. Implementation of the economic function of the state is one of the most important prerequisites for ensuring sustainable social development, solving important social problems such as reducing unemployment, increasing real incomes, providing decent living conditions of everyone, especially those citizens who due to objective circumstances cannot work independently and
provide themselves with necessary benefits.
In addition to the relationship with the economic function of the state, social function also closely interacts with political function of the state. The political function of the state plays very important role in public life, because the implementation of the basic policy framework provides appropriate state decisions that have both a political and legal nature. These decisions are aimed at solving a specific problem that arises in any sphere of public life, including in the field of social security. With the implementation of the political function of the state it is the formation of mechanisms
of regulatory impact on social life of society. So, it is stressed that the interaction and correlation of social and political functions of the state appears at the formation and implementation of social policy, which should be considered as part of public policy in general.
Relationship and interaction of social and cultural functions of the modern state manifested primarily in the fact that the proper implementation of the latter, especially in the context of the development of education and science, is a necessary prerequisite for implementation of basic social rights of individuals, especially the right to work. Social function, in its turn, is intended to provide accessibility of education for all citizens regardless of their economic status and other formal features, accessibility for all people to use the achievements of culture and art. Beside this, a balanced cultural policy of the state is able to significantly reduce the conflicting trends of society on various grounds (ethnic, religious, political, etc.), which is one of the objectives of the social function of the state.
The social function of the state is also closely linked with its ecological function. In establishing appropriate environmental conditions for life and labor rights observed a close relationship and interaction of environmental and social functions of the state. Indeed, the larger are the society’s incomes, the less is its impact on nature, because
consumers, having sufficient funds, can buy environmentally friendly goods and services, and manufacturers using resource-saving technologies – to establish treatment facilities, contributing to mitigation of negative human impacts on the environment.
In the context of interaction of communicative function of the state with its social function it should be noted that the course to the formation of the welfare state, whose primary responsibility is to provide a decent standard of living for every person as the highest social value, objective requires establishing cooperation of public authorities with citizens and organizations, that is communication, mutual exchange of information on appropriate levels of such cooperation. Implementation of social function of the state in modern conditions is impossible without informative-and-communicational component, by which provided, in particular, analysis, collection and processing of information about the social sphere of society’s life on the basis of which forms the appropriate law-making proposals aimed at
improving the legal regulation of social relations in this field.
It is summed up that social function takes a special place in the system of internal functions of the modern state, which, in their turn, are closely linked with the social purpos e of the state.
Key words: functions of the state, social function of the state, economical function of the state, political function of the state, cultural function of the state, social policy.