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Lvov . L., Ivaniv I. R.

The scientific-practical Law Journal  Almanac of Law Volume 11 (2020),
327-333 p.

DOI: 10.33663/2524-017X-2020-11-55

Lvov . L., Ivaniv I. R.  The moral and legal foundations of bioethics in the context of human rights: legal theory and international practice 

Modern processes of globalization taking place in the field of law are a great challenge to the idea of ​​human nature, which is recognized in Ukraine as the highest social value, as well as to the concept and essence of law itself. 

In our opinion, this is a threat on a global scale and necessitates the search for an adequate response to the threat from the scientific and technical process in the field of biomedicine, both for the natural (physical) existence of man and the preservation of his moral identity. In fact, these foundations have become the prerequisites for the development of the science of bioethics.

Bioethics studies controversial and ambiguous issues and proposes a humanitarian examination, which aims to assess the arguments in favor of the development of human creativity, health and prevention of premature death, and arguments in favor of preserving human identity in its spiritual and physical integrity.

The purpose of the article is to study the essence of controversial bioethical problems, the reasons for their occurrence and prospects for solving these problems. human, manipulation of stem cells and others.

Bioethical issues usually include the ethical issues of abortion; contraception and new reproductive technologies (artificial insemination, surrogacy); conducting experiments on humans and animals; obtaining informed consent and ensuring patients' rights; determination of death, suicide and euthanasia; problems in relation to dying patients (hospices); demographic policy and family planning; genetics (including problems of genome research, genetic engineering and gene therapy); transplantology; health equity; human cloning, manipulation of stem cells and others.

These issues related to the progress of genetics, genomics, pharmacology, transplantation, biotechnology, cloning are becoming increasingly important as a direction of international law in the context of ensuring and protecting human rights. IN legal literature indicates the formation of "biolaw", "bioethical legislation", "bioethical human rights". Thus there is a combination of possibilities and purposes of medicine and law.

In our article, we have explored only some of these issues, which are currently the most relevant, debatable, and therefore require detailed analysis. These include, in our view, the legal status of the embryo, therapeutic and reproductive cloning, abortion, the use of assisted reproductive technologies and organ transplantation.

In order to adequately cover these issues, we compare the rules of law governing these debatable issues with the views of church representatives and scholars on these issues. We also proposed changes that need to be made to the legislation of Ukraine so that the rules of law governing these issues meet the moral and ethical principles.

As a conclusion is marked, that as bioethics as science dealing with survival combines in itself biological knowledge and general human values, then it is possible to consider natural human rights, her honour and dignity morally-legal principles of bioethics, a self right and law must become on defence of that, in particular, with the aim of providing of natural (physical) existence of man, and maintenance of her moral identity. 

Keywords: human rights, moral, bioethics, abortion, reproductive technologies, cloning.

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