The scientific-practical Law Journal “Almanac of Law” Volume 11 (2020), 345-349 p.
Opishniak S. O. Anthropological and legal basis of natural human rights: incipience and current state
The conceptions of the anthropological bases of natural human rights and current views of scientists, are investigated in this paper. The ideas how to improve the anthropological conception of natural human rights are offered in this paper.
Fundamental theories of origin of natural human rights, which contain the anthropological approach to understanding the concept of human rights, and their incipience are analysed. It is ascertained, that every of existing approaches to anthropological understanding the concept of natural human rights has some disadvantages, caused by the multiform of the category ‘human rights’.
The purpose of this scientific paper is to investigate the conceptions of the anthropological bases of natural human rights and current views of scientists, to offer the ideas how to improve the anthropological conception of natural human rights.
It is offered to determine the anthropological basis of natural human rights on two points: 1) from the position of a single individual and peculiarities, which are inherent to a person regardless of social environment. Anthropological basis consists in aspiration of every single person for keeping the individuality and providing the worthy living conditions; 2) from the position of society, because every individual has an interest in setting up of some legal rules, which would improve the quality of living within society, protect the private life from infringement, establish the boundaries of sphere in which society and state may interfere.
It is proved that anthropological and legal basis of natural human rights depends on legal culture, that is formed during the certain historical period in a definite country. It is ascertained, that the assertion that natural human rights are invariable, can be considered as erroneous, because the interpretation of the basic human rights is changing together with the changing of direction of legal conception.
The issue that anthropological basis of human rights can be used to restrict some rights is considered. It is reasoned that it is important to take into consideration during the determination the anthropological basis of natural human rights, that definition of human nature does not exist. It is considered that anthropological and legal basis of natural human rights is perspective field for further researches, because scientific discussion about the origin and essence of human rights is not complete. It is proved that it is impossible to make an impartial determination of the essentiality of the human rights only on the base on one scientific approach, due to the versatility of the category human rights.
Keywords: anthropological basis, natural human rights, natural legal understanding, essentiality of the human rights.
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