The scientific-practical Law Journal
“Almanac of Law” Volume 13 (2022), 54-60 p.
Bobrovnyk S. V. Legal relations in the field of legal conflict and compromise: features, content and practical significance
The relevance of a comprehensive study of the phenomena of compromise and conflict relations is due to the lack of special studies of the concept, features, content and nature of these categories, the prospects for the use of compromise relations in practice to overcome conflict situations.
Analyzing the various scientific approaches to understanding conflicting relationships, we can conclude that the most common are: Conflict approach, activity approach, material approach, formal (procedural) approach.
Based on existing approaches to understanding conflict relationships and their features, we will try to identify the most inherent features: first, the subject is social or material values, about which there are conflict situations; secondly, encourage the mobilization of legal relations; third, accompanied by increased emotionality of participants; fourth, determined by objective and subjective preconditions; fifth, it is both bilateral and multilateral; sixth, the confrontation of values and intentions of the participants; seventh, they may be latent or overt. These features of the manifestation of conflicting legal relations are the basis for determining their legal nature.
In our opinion, the characteristic features of compromise legal relations include the following:
- is a prerequisite for resolving conflicting legal relations;
- can be directed both to a specific subject and to an indefinite number of persons;
- a necessary condition for the emergence, change and termination of compromise legal relations is the presence of a compromise rule;
- a necessary condition for a compromise legal relationship is the presence of agreement between their participants;
- aimed at regulating, protecting and defending the rights and freedoms of participants;
- compromise legal relations are a legal mechanism for regulating the consent of the subjects;
Legal conflict and legal compromise are manifested in various types of legal relations, in particular in their content through forms of realization of rights. At the same time, the main types of forms of realization of rights in the presence of legal conflicts are their implementation and observance. Legal conflicts, the dynamics of which is carried out within the framework of compliance with legal norms is directly related to their use. This is due to the fact that each right of one entity corresponds to the corresponding duty of another. Such legal conflicts within the framework of the above forms of law enforcement exist in all branches of law.
The most common means of compromising the right to compromise conflicts that arise when participants exercise their rights and perform their duties are: making changes and additions to the law; adoption of law enforcement decisions by specially authorized entities, first of all, competent bodies in resolving conflict situations, in particular by courts; the need to take into account foreign experience in resolving anthological conflict situations, etc. – definition of measures and forms of guarantee of the reached agreement.
Thus, the structural and functional elements of a legal compromise include: the existence of a conflict situation that requires resolution; goal; the initiator of the compromise agreement; determination of the criterion of the moment when further intransigence, refusal to mutually discuss ways out of the situation leads to significant personal material and moral losses; psychological and intellectual willingness to cooperate on terms of compromise; voluntary compromise decision-making; preparation for a compromise decision and determination of the essence of the compromise agreement with discussion of the content of concessions; independence of the choice of the decision-making option by the parties; concluding a compromise agreement; creating conditions for the impossibility of evading the implementation of the compromise agreement; obtaining positive consequences as the end result of a compromise in the form of a desired interest, a positive moral and psychological state. Certain elements of compromise are interconnected, have their own logic of interaction and, in fact, constitute a specific effective regulatory mechanism, born in the practice of human life. This mechanism has a structure of a linear type that corresponds to logic: from goal-setting to the fastest achievement of the goal with the least losses - psychological, material, time, and so on.
Key words: legal conflict, legal compromise, legal relations, content of legal relations, conflict situation.
1.Ivanov V. M. Yurydychna konfliktolohiia. Navch. posibnyk. Kyiv: MAUP, 2004. 224 s.
2.Tykhomyrova Ye. B., Postolovskyi S. R. Konfliktolohiia ta teoriia perehovoriv: Pidruchnyk. Rivne: Perspektyva, 2007. 389 s.
3.Khliborob N. Ye. Teoretyko-pravovi aspekty sutnosti publichno-pravovykh sporiv. Derzhava ta rehiony. Seriia: Pravo. 2010. ¹ 3. S. 214–220.
4.Madisson V. Pravova konfliktolohiia ta yurydychnyi konflikt u pryvatnykh pravovidnosynakh. Pravo Ukrainy. 2003. ¹ 9. S. 39–44.
5.Timashov V. O. Yurydychnyi konflikt: sutnist, vyznachennia, struktura, formy, skladnyky. Naukovi zapysky Instytutu zakonodavstva Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy. 2011. ¹ 3 (6). S. 26–31.
6.Novikova M. M. Yurydychnyi kompromis yak faktor optymizatsii mekhanizmu pravovoho rehuliuvannia: Dys. na zdobuttia nauk. stupenia kandydata yurydychnykh nauk: Spets. 12.00.01. Kharkiv, 2007. 198 s.
7.Bobrovnyk S. Teoretyko-metodolohichni zasady doslidzhennia kompromisu i konfliktu v pravi. Chasopys Kyivskoho universytetu prava. 2008. ¹ 4 S. 8–12.
8.Husàriev S. D., Tykhomyrov O. D. Yurydychna deontolohiia. Osnovy yurydchynori diialnosti: Navch. posibnyk. Kyiv: Znannia, 2005. 655 s.
9.Skibitska L. I. Konfliktolohiia: Navchalnyi posibnyk. Kyiv: Tsentr uchbovoi l-ry, 2007. 384 s.
10.Zhornokui Yu. Shliakhy vyrishennia konfliktnykh sytuatsii (korporatyvnykh konfliktiv) v aktsionernykh tovarystvakh. Pravo Ukrainy. 2009. ¹ 10. S. 190–199.
11.Husariev S. D., Tykhomyrov O. D. Yurydychna deontolohiia (Osnovy yurydychnoi diialnosti): Navchalnyi posibnyk. Kyiv: Znannia, 2005. 655 c.