The scientific-practical Law Journal
“Alma nac of Law” Volume 13 (2022), 439-443 p.
Chornenka D. S. The right to life and the right to health: the fundamental principles of transplantology in constitutional law
The article examines basic human rights. Among the fundamental and inalienable human rights is the right to life. Yes, Art. 27 of the Constitution of Ukraine guarantees everyone an inalienable right to life. It states that no one can be arbitrarily deprived of life. The duty of the state is to protect human life. This right is closely related to human health. It is emphasized that human life depends on the state of its health. Often health is a major component for conservation and prolonged life. Accordingly, organ transplantation, as a way of saving life, is especially important, and therefore the problems of transplanting organs and tissues are drawn by scientists, and not only from the medical sphere.
Transplantation of organs and tissues of the human body is one of the most promising and at the same time quite in demand of modern medicine, which has made it possible to treat a number of serious diseases. Transplantation of organs and tissues, as a means of real assistance to patients who need it, has a number of characteristic features that distinguish this method from other medicinal effects. This is due to the presence of a donor-a person who in most cases does not require medical care, as well as problems of moral and ethical and general legal content. These circumstances substantiate the importance and need to regulate public relations in the field of transplantology. It is emphasized that the analysis of the norms in force in this area shows that many issues of transplantation of organs and tissues are either not regulated at all or need to improve legal regulation. The legal aspects of the problem of organ and tissue transplantation are extremely relevant. That is why transplantology as a science of transplanting organs and (or) tissues of a person should be based on the law, which is based on the protection of fundamental rights, freedoms and human dignity of every citizen. From the point of view of ethics, the problem of transplantology differs significantly depending on whether it is about the sampling of organs and tissues for transplanting organs in a living person or from the body of the dead. Solving these ethical problems depends largely on the state of legislation in the state, including constitutional ones.
Key words: human rights, right to life, right to health, somatic rights, transplantation, recipient, donor, legal regulation of donation, health care, human body, human body tissues.
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