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Melnychuk O. F.

The scientific-practical Law Journal
“Almanac of Law” Volume 13 (2022), 130-135 p.

DOI: 10.33663/2524-017X-2022-13-20

Melnychuk O. F. Peculiarities of protection of children’s rights in conditions of military action and armed conflicts

The article reveals the peculiarities of the protection of children’s rights due to hostilities and armed conflicts. The means that the state should use (both the victim and the aggressor) to protect the rights of children in the context of hostilities and armed conflicts are studied. Proposals are being made to improve national legislation and the collective security system. It is stated that the protection of children’s rights in the context of hostilities and armed conflicts has undergone transformations and has therefore acquired certain features distinct from those of peacetime. They boil down to the following features: children’s rights are protected by norms of both international and national law, but with the priority of international humanitarian law; the effectiveness of such protection depends on both parties to the armed conflict, including the good faith performance of the international legal obligations of the adversary; the system of collective security in modern conditions is inefficient and requires the development of new measures and tools for improvement; Consolidation of efforts and participation of the international community, creation of a coalition of states and various world organizations are important for the protection of children’s rights; The protection of children’s rights is facilitated by the social cohesion of civil society, which is acquiring new forms of activities related to helping children during hostilities and armed conflicts.

In order to effectively protect the rights of children in war zones and armed conflicts and children affected by them, national legislation needs to be further improved. To do this, it is necessary to develop a state program for the rehabilitation of children injured in hostilities and armed conflicts; determine the composition of such crimes as «recruitment of a child during an armed conflict», «use of a child during an armed conflict» and establish criminal penalties for them; define the concept of «a child who is in a zone of hostilities and armed conflict», etc. Ukraine currently lacks a consolidating public authority to ensure and protect the rights of children, including those affected by and affected by hostilities and armed conflicts.

Key words: children’s rights, protection of children’s rights, military action, armed conflict, Geneva conventions, international humanitarian law, collective security.

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