The scientific-practical Law Journal
“Almanac of Law” Volume 12 (2021), 136-141 p
Vasetsky V. Y. The influence of socio-political events in Europe in the XVI-XVII centuries on the development of legal doctrine of Modern history
In the history of the country’s development there are periods in which significant changes in social, political and economic life take place. These undoubtedly include the period of the European Reformation of the XVI-XVII centuries. Socio-political events in critical periods are at the same time the source of development in the legal sphere, when often in the struggle crystallize new, necessary for the development of the state, legal provisions of a doctrinal nature.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the socio-political events in Europe in the XVI-XVII centuries, the results of the Thirty Years’ War and the significance of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 in terms of influencing the development of legal doctrine of Modern history, and also to provide a comparison with the peculiarities of the socio-political situation that took place in the Ukrainian lands of that time.
It is noted that since the beginning of the XVI century. almost the entire world of that time was covered by the Reformation. First of all, it was a broad socio-political movement that took the form of a struggle with the Catholic Church. Against this backdrop of socio-political and economic change, Protestantism has become widespread throughout Europe, associated with the names of Martin Luther, Jean Calvin, and Ulrich Zwingli. At the same time, the Catholic Church and the Jesuits opposed the Reformation and led the Counter-Reformation. The result of this confrontation was the Thirty Years’ War - the first pan-European war of 1618 – 1648 between the Catholic Union and the coalition of Protestant states. In European history, this war has remained one of the most terrible European conflicts. Historians estimate that more than 2 million military and more than 6 million civilians were killed.
Thirty Years’ War in Europe in the XVII century. ended with the signing in 1648 at the same time in Münster and Osnabrück peace treaty, which was called the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. It is emphasized that the Peace of Westphalia contains a number of provisions of a doctrinal nature. It is made conclusion that this treaty was the source of modern international law and had a long-term impact on the development of relations between states. Among the most important principles of doctrinal nature are the following: state sovereignty has become a universally recognized legal category; the principle of freedom of conscience is recognized with certain restrictions; the idea of sovereignty and independence of each state was opposed to the idea of a single Christian community; proclaimed the idea of ensuring certain human rights, especially the principle according to which private property and the rights of citizens of a hostile state could not be changed by war.
Ukrainian ties with European events of that era also took place. This was reflected in the text of the Treaty of Osnabrück, where Ukrainians are noted as allies of Sweden, and the Treaty determined the relevant international legal status of Transylvania at that time. It is noted that the period of the Reformation coincides with the events in Ukraine, as a result of which the Ukrainian Liberation War began, led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
Keywords: European Reformation, Peace of Westphalia, legal doctrine, origins of law, the Revolution of Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
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