The scientific-practical Law Journal
“Almanac of Law” Volume 13 (2022), 188-193 p.
Bohinich O. Positive obligations of the state in the field of law-making and law enforcement in the conditions of war and post-war reconstruction of the state
The article examines the issue of the state’s positive obligations regarding the observance, provision and protection of the rights of citizens in the extraordinary conditions of military operations and post-war reconstruction of the country. It is noted that the issue of the state’s positive obligations is closely related to human rights, the realization of which it must ensure and which it must protect. In the context of the above, a retrospective investigation is conducted regarding the emergence of such a phenomenon of legal validity as positive obligations of the state. It is argued that this phenomenon is a product of the emergence of the contractual theory of the state and natural law. Its modern development is mostly connected with the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights.
The issue of the state’s positive obligations is considered in the context of military operations taking place on the territory of Ukraine. For this, the tools of civil law are used, namely: the law of obligation. n this regard, it is noted that the state is an obligated party to a person, therefore his right to life implies a corresponding obligation of the state to ensure the realization of this right, both in the sphere of rule-making and in the sphere of law enforcement. The relevant activity of competent state bodies in the pre-war period is analyzed. Corresponding shortcomings are indicated.
At the same time, the activity of state bodies during military operations is characterized as positive. However, certain shortcomings of the relevant legal regulation of criminal protection of human rights to life, safety and property are pointed out. At the end, it is concluded that in today’s conditions, despite Ukraine’s withdrawal from certain obligations defined by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, it remains responsible for the preservation of life, health and property its citizens, ensuring their safety. In this aspect, the relevant activity of the competent state bodies of Ukraine needs to be intensified.
Key words: ðositive obligations of the state, law-making, law enforcement
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