UA EN

Fuley T. I.

The scientific-practical Law Journal
Almanac of Law Volume 14 (2023), 395- 403 p.

DOI: 10.33663/2524-017X-2023-14-395-403

Fuley T. I. Access to justice for war victims in Ukraine.

The ongoing war in Ukraine is a test for rule and law and justice. Mass atrocities and scale of destruction during the full-scale phase of armed aggression against Ukraine inevitably bring up the issue of a real embodiment of the rule of law. The article examines the issue of access to justice as one of the necessary elements of the rule of law with particular attention to the access to justice for victims of war in Ukraine. The author emphasizes that the concept of access to justice has been developed in the English-speaking environment, where fairness in the way people are dealt with and the system of laws in a country that judges and punishes people are denoted by the same word justice. This fact explains the attractiveness of access to justice as a catchphrase. The concept of access to justice is perceived primarily as an important element of the rule of law which enables individuals to protect themselves against infringements of their rights and to remedy civil wrongs and not just access to a court as an institution. Considering the role of the judiciary to apply the law in accordance with an appropriate, that is to say, sufficiently transparent and predictable, interpretative methodology, the author concludes that the absence or inconsistency of terminology used in normative acts can be considered as one of the indicative examples of regulatory obstacles to access to justice. Thus, the use and correlation of the concepts (and hence the terms) victim (zhertva), injured person (postrazhdala osoba) and victim (in criminal proceedings) (poterpilyi) has been analyzed both in national legislation and in translations of international treaties valid for Ukraine, where the concept of victim is used. In addition to regulatory ones, there may also be institutional obstacles, i.e., the criminal justice system traditionally pays more attention to the rights of the accused than to the victim of a crime. Both types of obstacles (regulatory and institutional) acting cumulatively may lead, i.e., to secondary victimization in the treatment of vulnerable victims and witnesses. It is emphasized that in the conditions of full-scale armed aggression against Ukraine, the approach of national courts is undergoing changes. There is a tendency of Ukrainian judiciary to be more victim-oriented in criminal as well as civil cases. Analysis of verdicts concerning Art. 438 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine (CCU) (violation of the laws and customs of war) issued after the beginning of the full-scale invasion and available in the State registry of court decisions shows that the courts take into account the vulnerability of the victims, explicitly mentioning it in the verdicts. Considering a civil case filed by a widow of a military serviceman who died during a combat mission in 2014 in the Luhansk region (who acts in her own interests and in the interests of minor children) against the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court ruled that Ukrainian courts have the right to ignore the immunity of Russian Federation and consider civil cases of compensation for damage caused to an individual as a result of armed aggression of the Russian Federation. 

Key words: access to justice, rule of law, victim, war crimes, gender-based violence, vulnerable persons, victims of war, reparations.

References

1. Pravosuddia bude ne shvydkym, ale tochno bude nemynuchym Mykola Gnatovskyy pro voienni zlochyny. Pravo.ua. 27.04.2022. URL: https://pravo.ua/pravosuddia-bude-ne-shvydkym-ale-tochno-bude-nemynuchymmykola-hnatovskyi-pro-voienni-zlochyny/ 

2. Garth B., Cappelletti M. Access to Justice: The Newest Wave in the Worldwide Movement to Make Rights Effective. Buffalo Law Review. 1978. Vol. 27. P. 181292. 

3. Sackville R. Some Thoughts on Access to Justice. New Zealand Journal of Public and International Law. 2004. Vol. 2 P. 85111. 

4. Galanter M. Access to Justice in a World of Expanding Social Capability. 37 Fordham Urban Law Journal. 2010. Vol. 37. P. 115128. 

5. Yevropeiska komisiia Za demokratiiu cherez pravo (Venetsiiska komisiia). Verkhovenstvo prava. Dopovid 512/2009. CDL-AD(2011)003rev. Oryh. anhl. Pravo Ukrainy. 2011. No. 10. . 168184.

6. Pro zatverdzhennia Poriadku vyznachennia shkody ta zbytkiv, zavdanykh Ukraini vnaslidok zbroinoi ahresii Rosiiskoi Federatsii: postanova Kabinetu Ministriv Ukrainy vid 20.03.2022 r. 326. URL: https://zakon.rada. gov.ua/laws/show/326-2022-%D0%BF#Text

7. Svit potrebuie realnoho vtilennia verkhovenstva prava, yake ubezpechyt liudstvo vid dzherela vsikh ahresii vystup Prezydenta Volodymyra Zelenskoho na konferentsii United for Justice u Lvovi. Prezydent Ukrainy. Ofitsiine internet-predstavnytstvo. 03.03.2023. URL: https://www.president.gov.ua/news/svit-potrebuyerealnogo-vtilennya-verhovenstva-prava-yake-ub-81417

8. Storgaard, A. Access to justice research: On the way to a broader perspective. Oñati Socio-Legal Series. 2022. DOI: HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.35295/OSLS.IISL/0000-0000-0000-1352

9. Justice. Cambridge Dictionary. URL: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/ru/%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0 %B2%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%8C/%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B3%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%B9%D1%81% D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9/justice

10. Olena Zelenska vystupyla na konferentsii United for Justice: Poterpilyi nikoly ne nese vidpovidalnosti za zlochyn, vidpovidalnyi lyshe vykonavets. Prezydent Ukrainy. Ofitsiine internet-predstavnytstvo. 04.03.2023. URL: https://www.president.gov.ua/news/olena-zelenska-vistupila-na-konferenciyi-united-justice-pote-81449

11. Kryminalnyi kodeks Ukrainy: Zakon Ukrainy vid 05.04.2001 r. 2341-III. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/ laws/show/2341-14#Text 

12. Pro vnesennia zmin do Kryminalnoho ta Kryminalnoho protsesualnoho kodeksiv Ukrainy z metoiu realizatsii polozhen Konventsii Rady Yevropy pro zapobihannia nasylstvu stosovno zhinok i domashnomu nasylstvu ta borotbu z tsymy yavyshchamy: Zakon Ukrainy vid 06.12.2017 r. 2227-VIII. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov. ua/laws/show/2227-19#n41 

13. Pro vnesennia zmin do deiakykh zakonodavchykh aktiv Ukrainy shchodo implementatsii Konventsii Rady Yevropy pro zakhyst ditei vid seksualnoi ekspluatatsii ta seksualnoho nasylstva (Lantsarotskoi konventsii): Zakon Ukrainy vid 18.02.2021 r. 1256-IX. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1256-20#n7 

14. Kryminalnyi protsesualnyi kodeks Ukrainy: Zakon Ukrainy vid 13.04.2012 r. 4651-VI. URL: https://zakon. rada.gov.ua/laws/show/4651-17#Text 

15. Ladanivska N. Mistse vchennia pro poterpiloho vid kryminalnoho pravoporushennia v systemi nauk kryminalno-pravovoho tsyklu. Nashe parvo. 4. 2020. S. 99104. DOI 10.32782/NP.2020.4.15 

16. Borysov V. Poterpilyi vid zlochynu yak sotsialnyi subiekt kryminalno-pravovoi okhorony. Pravo Ukrainy. 2017. 2. S. 100107. 

17. Pro ratyfikatsiiu Zhenevskykh konventsii vid 12 serpnia 1949 roku pro zakhyst zhertv viiny: Ukaz Prezydii Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainskoi RSR vid 03.07.1954 r. URL: https://zakon.cc/law/document/read/114%D0%B0-03 

18. Dodatkovyi protokol do Zhenevskykh konventsii vid 12 serpnia 1949 roku, shcho stosuietsia zakhystu zhertv mizhnarodnykh zbroinykh konfliktiv (Protokol I), vid 8 chervnia 1977 roku. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/ laws/show/995_199#Text 

19. Konventsiia Rady Yevropy pro zapobihannia nasylstvu stosovno zhinok i domashnomu nasylstvu ta borotbu iz tsymy yavyshchamy. Ofitsiinyi pereklad. URL: https://rm.coe.int/1680462546 

20. Pro okhoronu dytynstva: Zakon Ukrainy vid 26.04.2001 r. 2402-III. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/ show/2402-14#Text 

21. Konventsiia pro zakhyst prav liudyny i osnovopolozhnykh svobod (z protokolamy) (Ievropeiska konventsiia z prav liudyny). URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_004#Text 

22. Marguš v. Croatia. App. no. 4455/10, ECtHR Judgement [GC] of 27 May 2014. URL: https://hudoc.echr.coe. int/eng?i=001-144276

23. Kononov v. Latvia. App. no. 36376/04. ECtHR Judgement [GC] of 17 May 2010. URL: https://hudoc.echr.coe. int/eng?i=001-98669 

24. Jorgic v. Germany. App. no. 74613/01. ECtHR Judgement of 12 July 2007. URL: https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/ eng?i=001-81608 

25. Stichting Mothers of Srebrenica and others v. Netherlands. App. no. 65542/12 ECtHR Decision of 11 June 2013. URL: https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-122255 

26. Hussein et autres c. Belgique. Requête no 45187/12. CEDH Arrêt 16 mars 2021. URL: https://hudoc.echr.coe. int/eng?i=001-208446 

27. Jones and Others v. the United Kingdom. App. nos. 34356/06 and 40528/06. ECtHR Judgement of 14 January 2014. URL: https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-140005 

28. Nyni aktualizuvalosia pytannia shchodo zakhystu prav poterpilykh u kryminalnykh provadzhenniakh, poviazanykh iz rosiiskoiu ahresiieiu. Sudova vlada Ukrainy. 01.08.2021. URL: https://kiarea.arbitr.gov.ua/ archive/1302247/ 

29. What does victim-centered mean for criminal justice actors? URL: https://www.warnathgroup.com/wpcontent/uploads/2015/03/What-does-Victim-Centered-mean-for-Criminal-Justice-Actors-FINAL.pdf 

30. Guide: Victim-Centered Approach for Front-Line Professionals Working with Trafficking in Human Beings. The European Unions Migration, Asylum and Integration Fund. URL: https://www.cyrefugeecouncil.org/wpcontent/uploads/2021/08/guide-victim-centered-approach-official.pdf 

31. Pro sotsialni posluhy: zakon Ukrainy vid 17.01.2019 r. 2671-VIII. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/ show/2671-19#Text 

32. Vyrok Kyievo-Sviatoshynskoho raionnoho sudu Kyivskoi oblasti vid 17.11.2022 r. u spravi 369/9950/22. URL: https://reyestr.court.gov.ua/Review/107577110 

33. Postanova Verkhovnoho Sudu vid 14.04.2022 r. u spravi 308/9708/19. URL: https://reyestr.court.gov.ua/ Review/104086064 

34. Pro zatverdzhennia Instruktsii pro poriadok vykonannia norm mizhnarodnoho humanitarnoho prava u Zbroinykh Sylakh Ukrainy: Nakaz Ministerstva oborony Ukrainy vid 23.03.2017 r. 164. URL: https:// zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z0704-17#n11

<< Back

  G Analytics