UA EN

Tarasevych T. Yu.

The scientific-practical Law Journal
“Almanac of Law” Volume 14 (2023), 352- 360 p.

DOI: 10.33663/2524-017X-2023-14-352-360

Tarasevych T. Yu. Legal thanatology and the right to death: problems and prospects for studying somatic human rights.

The article examines the somatic rights of a person through the prism of «discourse of death». Emphasis is placed on the problems of legal thanatology as a science about death. Philosophical, religious and cultural differences in concepts and definition of human death. It is noted that an important component of medical thanatology is the concept of thanatogenesis – the causes and mechanisms of the onset of death, a set of interdependent pathological processes that lead to the onset of clinical or biological death. Knowledge of the basic patterns of thanatogenesis and detection of changes that trigger the process of thanatogenesis are necessary for timely and adequate correction of critical conditions that occur in patients. The time of death of a person is the moment of his brain death or his biological death (irreversible death of a person). Brain death can occur with complete and irreversible cessation of all its functions, which is registered with a working heart and artificial ventilation of the lungs. The methodology for diagnosing death is not related to the concept that there are different types of death. Loss of cardiovascular and respiratory function can lead to death only when ischemia and anoxia are prolonged enough to cause irreversible brain damage. Legal thanatology should be considered as an independent direction in modern jurisprudence within the framework of general theoretical jurisprudence. It is related to medical bioethics, medical law, and, from this point of view, it identifies the gaps that exist in jurisprudence and medicine and, if possible, eliminates them. Legal thanatology is a kind of «bridge» and «filter» of achievements in the field of medicine and legal science, which further helps law to «go hand in hand» with medicine. It was concluded that in the conditions of an increase in the number of donor centers, the extreme ethical importance of diagnosing brain death determines the need for high accuracy, speed and safety of its establishment. The above data show that the problem of brain death, as before, remains an open scientific problem. The concept of brain death continues to develop, refine, and improve. Any new circumstances (clinical observations, scientific facts) have to be tested again and again as arguments in defense of life or in defense of death. 

Key words: human rights, right to death, somatic rights, legal thanatology, death, human body, time of death, brain death.

References

1. Dylemy bioetyky: abort, evtanaziia, transplantolohiia. Big library. URL: http://www.big-library.com.ua/ book/45_Prikladna_etika/4219_23Dilemi_bioetiki_abort_evtanaziya_transplantologiya (data zvernennia: 04/17/2023).

2. Dombrovska O. Shchodo pravovykh aspektiv lehalizatsii evtanazii. Pravo Ukrainy. 2008. ą 10. S. 20–23. 

3. Erhard N. M. Sudova medytsyna: konspekt lektsii. Kyiv: UkrDRHI, 2023. 119 s. 

4. Zaporozhchenko A. O. «Pravo pomerty hidno», «evtanaziia»: poniattia ta yikh spivvidnoshennia. Prykarpatskyi yurydychnyi visnyk. 2014. Vyp. 3 (6). URL: http://www.pjv.nuoua.od.ua/v3_2014/03.pdf (data zvernennia:17.04.2023). 

5. Kasyniuk L. A., Senatorova S. M. Deiaki aspekty realizatsii prava na zhyttia. Yurydychnyi naukovyi elektronnyi zhurnal. 2021. ą 1. S. 75–79. URL: http://www.lsej.org.ua/1_2021/18.pdf (data zvernennia:17.04.2023). 

6. Kryminalnyi kodeks Ukrainy vid 05.04.2001 ą 2341-III. Baza danykh «Zakonodavstvo Ukrainy» / VR Ukrainy. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2341-14#Text (data zvernennia: 04/17/2023). 

7. Menzhulin V. I. Ukrainski koreni Zyhmunda Freida: nevidomi fakty z zhyttia vidomoho avstriiskoho psykhoanalityka: interviu z dotsentom kafedry filosofii ta relihiieznavstva NaUKMA. Ukraina moloda. 2006. 5 trav. (ch. 81). S. 19. URL: https://ekmair.ukma.edu.ua/handle/123456789/2513 (data zvernennia:17.04.2023). 

8. Osnovy zakonodavstva Ukrainy pro okhoronu zdorovia: Zakon Ukrainy vid 19.11.1992 ą 2801-XII. Baza danykh «Zakonodavstvo Ukrainy» / VR Ukrainy. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2801-12#Text (data zvernennia:17.04.2023). 

9. Pankiv O. M., Petrovskyi Yu. I. Pravo liudyny na rozporiadzhennia zhyttiam: deiaki aspekty. Medychne pravo Ukrainy: problemy stanovlennia ta rozvytku: mater. I Vseukr. nauk.-prakt. konf. (m. Lviv, 19–20 kvit. 2007 r.). Lviv, 2007. S. 210–215. URL: http://medicallaw.org.ua/uploads/media/01_210_04.pdf (data zvernennia:17.04.2023). 

10. Rohova O. H. Pravo na zhyttia v systemi prav liudyny: avtoref. dys. … kand. yuryd. nauk. Kharkiv, 2006. 21 s. 

11. Seniuta I. Ya. Medychne pravo: pravo liudyny na okhoronu zdorovia: monohrafiia. Lviv: Astroliabiia, 2007. 224 s.

 12. Sloma V. M. Pravo na zhyttia yak osobyste nemainove pravo fizychnoi osoby. Yurydychnyi visnyk. 2012. ą 1 (22). S. 77–81. 

13. Smert na prokhannia v Yevropi (Bioetyka ta praktyka YeSPL shchodo zakinchennia zhyttia liudyny na prokhannia): zb. rishen YeSPL / uklad., per. Ya. O. Trynova; za zah. red. V. M. Kutsa. Kharkiv: Pravo, 2019. 376 s.

14. Stefanchuk R. O. Osobysti nemainovi prava fizychnykh osib (poniattia, zmist, systema, osoblyvosti zdiisnennia ta zakhystu): monohrafiia / vidp. red. Ya. M. Shevchenko. Kyiv: KNT, 2008. 626 s. S. 452. 

15. Tupelniak I. I. Pravo na zhyttia ta smert v konteksti praktyky Yevropeiskoho sudu z prav liudyny. Bioetychni aspekty pravovoho rehuliuvannia eitanazii ta sumizhnykh z neiu yavyshch v Ukraini: mater. kruhloho stolu z mizhnar. uchastiu, m. Kyiv, 18 hrud. 2018 r. / za red. Ya. O. Trynovoi. Kyiv, 2018. 

16. Tsyvilnyi kodeks Ukrainy vid 16.01.2003 ą 435-IV. Baza danykh «Zakonodavstvo Ukrainy» / VR Ukrainy. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/435-15#Text (data zvernennia:17.04.2023). 

17. Bacigalupo F., Huerta D., Montefusco-Siegmund R. The debate about death: an imperishable discussion? Biological Research. 2007. Vol. 40. P. 523–534. 

18. Barron E., Lara J., White M., Mathers J. C. Blood-Borne Biomarkers of Mortality Risk: Systematic Review of Cohort Studies. PLoS ONE. 2015. Vol. 10. P. 23. 

19. Chamsi-Pasha H., Albar M. A. Kidney transplantation: Ethical challenges in the Arab world. Avicenna Journal of Medicine. 2017. Vol. 7, No. 2. P. 35–45. 

20. Friedman H. S., Kern M. L. Personality, Well-Being, and Health. Annual Review of Psychology. 2014. Vol. 65. P. 719–742.

21. Läkarna tvekar om dödshjälp euthanasia. Research & Progress (Sverige). URL: https://translate.google.ru/ translate?hl=ru&sl=sv&u=https://www.svd.se/fakta-ochargument-om-dodshjalp&prev=search/ (viewed on:17.04.2023). 

22. Machado C. Diagnosis of brain death. Neurology International. 2010. Vol. 2, No. 1. P. 2–16. 

23. Miller A. C., Ziad-Miller A., Elamin E. M. Brain death and Islam: the interface of religion, culture, history, law and modern medicine. Chest Journal. 2014. Vol. 146, No. 4. P. 1092–1101. 

24. Monteverde S., Rid A. Controversies in the determination of death: perspectives from Switzerland. Swiss Medical Weekly. 2012. Vol. 142. w13667. 

25. Powner D. J. Bernstein I.M. Extended somatic support for pregnant women after brain death. Critical Care Medicine. 2003. Vol. 31. P. 1241–1249. 

26. Rady M. Y., Verheijde J. L. Rady M. Y., & Verheijde J. L. American academy of neurology guidelines and the neurologic determination of death. Journal of Religion and Health. 2016. Vol. 55, No. 4. P. 1198–1205. 

27. Shemie S. D., Hornby L., Baker A., et al. International Guideline Development for the Determination of Death. Intensive Care Medicine. 2014. Vol. 40, No. 6. P. 788–797. 

28. Shewmon D. A. Chronic «brain death»: meta-analysis and conceptual consequences. Neurology. 1998. Vol. 51. P. 1538–1545.

<< Back

  G Analytics
đŕçđŕáîňęŕ ńŕéňŕ âĺá ńňóäč˙